Characteristics and management of ruptured distal middle cerebral artery aneurysms
ABSTRACT Distal middle cerebral artery (dMCA) aneurysms are very rare with a reported frequency of 2-6%. Typically, patients with ruptured distal MCA aneurysms have poor clinical outcomes because often there is both a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and an intracerebral haematoma (ICH). The goals of this study were to identify the characteristics of the distal MCA aneurysms and evaluate the optimal treatment for a good outcome.
The clinical, neuroradiological and operative records of 8 patients with a ruptured distal MCA aneurysm who underwent surgical management were reviewed retrospectively. The outcomes were presented according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS).
The clinical characteristics of the patients with ruptured dMCA aneurysms included the following: (1) a fusiform appearance in five out of eight (63%) patients. (2) Mean aneurysm size of 9.4 mm (range 2-35 mm). (3) The location being M2 (insular segment) in three, M2-3 junction in three, and M3 (opercular segment) in two patients. (4) Brain CT images revealed both SAH and an ICH in six of eight (75%) patients with the mean size of the ICH being 10 cc (range 5-25 cc). (5) Re-bleeding occurred in four out of eight (50%) of patients. All patients underwent early surgical treatment and the procedures used for surgical repair were, clipping in five patients, trapping in two, and trapping with end-to-end bypass surgery in one patient. Clinical outcomes were poor in two patients (death) due to severe brain swelling.
In this study, dMCA aneurysms had a fusiform shape and a high re-bleeding rate; if ruptured, there was generally ICH and SAH. A good clinical outcome was associated with adequate control of brain swelling and early surgery to prevent re-bleeding.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this article is to review studies of aneurysm risk factors and the suggested hypotheses that connect the different risk factors and the underlying mechanisms governing the aneurysm natural history. The result of this work suggests that at the center of aneurysm evolution there is a cycle of wall degeneration and weakening in response to changing hemodynamic loading and biomechanic stress. This progressive wall degradation drives the geometrical evolution of the aneurysm until it stabilizes or ruptures. Risk factors such as location, genetics, smoking, co-morbidities, and hypertension seem to affect different components of this cycle. However, details of these interactions or their relative importance are still not clearly understood.Annals of Biomedical Engineering 12/2012; DOI:10.1007/s10439-012-0723-0 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms frequently have nonsaccular morphology that necessitates trapping and bypass. Bypasses can be difficult because efferent arteries lie deep in the opercular cleft and may not be easily identifiable. We introduce the "flash fluorescence" technique, which uses videoangiography with indocyanine green (ICG) dye to identify an appropriate recipient artery on the cortical surface for the bypass, enabling a more superficial and easier anastomosis. Flash fluorescence requires 3 steps: (1) temporary clip occlusion of the involved afferent artery; (2) videoangiography demonstrating fluorescence in uninvolved arteries on the cortical surface; and (3) removal of the temporary clip with flash fluorescence in the involved efferent arteries on the cortical surface, thereby identifying a recipient. Alternatively, temporary clips can occlude uninvolved arteries, and videoangiography will demonstrate initial fluorescence in efferent arteries during temporary occlusion and flash fluorescence in uninvolved arteries during reperfusion. From a consecutive series of 604 MCA aneurysms treated microsurgically, 22 (3.6%) were distal aneurysms and 11 required a bypass. The flash fluorescence technique was used in 3 patients to select the recipient artery for 2 superficial temporal artery-to-MCA bypasses and 1 MCA-MCA bypass. The correct recipient was selected in all cases. The flash fluorescence technique provides quick, reliable localization of an appropriate recipient artery for bypass when revascularization is needed for a distal MCA aneurysm. This technique eliminates the need for extensive dissection of the efferent artery and enables a superficial recipient site that makes the anastomosis safer, faster, and less demanding.Neurosurgery 08/2011; 70(2 Suppl Operative):209-20. DOI:10.1227/NEU.0b013e31823158f3 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Based on a cohort of patients treated on distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm by microsurgical approach, the objectives were to assess the following: the postoperative functional outcome, study the causes of early neurological deterioration and to determine the predictive factors of favourable outcome. From a neurovascular prospective database, this retrospective longitudinal study included all the patients treated for cerebral aneurysm located on the distal segment of the MCA over two decades (January 1990-December 2011). The patients were all treated by microsurgical clipping exclusion. Any aneurysm was associated to infectious angiopathy. Data were retrieved from the patient's medical charts. The outcome was analysed twice: during the immediate postoperative period and at 6months according to the modified Rankin scale. The relative risk was estimated for each variable and the prognostic factors were assessed using a multivariate logistic regression model (P<0.05). Twenty-eight patients, mean age 40±13.3years (median: 43 years; range 6-70 years) were divided into the ruptured group (n=20) and unruptured group (n=8). In the ruptured group, the initial clinical status was good (WFNS I-III) in 12 patients (60%) and poor in eight (40%) with an intracerebral haematoma (ICH) in 11 (55%). For both groups, the aneurysm location on the distal MCA decreased at a rate from 64.8% of the insular segment to 25% of the opercular then 10.7% to the cortical. During the hospital stay, neurological deterioration occurred in 16 patients (57.2%). The diagnosed causes were cerebral ischaemia in 10 (35.6%), initial ICH in three (10.7%), hydrocephalus in two (7.1%) and epilepsy in one (7.1%). At 6months, a favourable outcome (mRS 0-2) was observed in 19 patients (68.1%), a definitive morbidity in seven (24.9%) and death in two (7.2%). Based on the prognostic factors, only the absence of immediate postoperative neurological deterioration was identified as significant for a favourable outcome. These rare cerebral aneurysms resulted in a high proportion of poor initial status related to a frequent ICH. Cerebral ischaemia was a major cause of the immediate neurological deterioration and the absence of immediate neurological deterioration was the single identified prognostic factor.Neurochirurgie 06/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.neuchi.2013.04.007 · 0.47 Impact Factor