Anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in Korean War veterans 50 years after the war.

Center for Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Australia.
The British Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 6.61). 07/2007; 190:475-83. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.106.025684
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There has been no comprehensive investigation of psychological health in Australia's Korean War veteran population, and few researchers are investigating the health of coalition Korean War veterans into old age.
To investigate the association between war service, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in Australia's 7525 surviving male Korean War veterans and a community comparison group.
A survey was conducted using a self-report postal questionnaire which included the PTSD Checklist, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and the Combat Exposure Scale.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (OR 6.63, P<0.001), anxiety (OR 5.74, P<0.001) and depression (OR 5.45, P<0.001) were more prevalent in veterans than in the comparison group. These disorders were strongly associated with heavy combat and low rank.
Effective intervention is necessary to reduce the considerable psychological morbidity experienced by Korean War veterans. Attention to risk factors and early intervention will be necessary to prevent similar long-term psychological morbidity in veterans of more recent conflicts.

  • Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 63:359-365.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study tested a structural model and examined the relationships between age, suicidal ideation, and scores on the 5-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale (BSRS-5), the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), and the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-12 (MOS SF-12) in a sample of veterans' home residents. Of the 266 individuals recruited, 226 completed the questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 84.9%. Participants completed the BSRS-5, GDS-15, MOS SF-12, and a demographic survey. Analysis of Moment Structures, Version 7.0, was used to test the structural relationships of the model with a structural equation modeling analysis and a maximum likelihood ratio estimation. Patient subitem scores, which ranked their feelings of depression, hostility, and inferiority, were summed to determine their 3-BSRS-subitem sum scores. The measures of model fitness were as follows: goodness-of-fit (χ = 12.03, df = 7, p = 0.1), goodness-of-fit index (0.98), adjusted goodness-of-fit index (0.95), comparative fit index (0.99), parsimony ratio (0.47), and root mean square error of approximation (0.06). All indices suggested that the final model fit the data well. Age was inversely related to physical component summary, which was inversely related to the 3-BSRS-subitem sum score. Mental component summary was inversely related to the 3-BSRS-subitem sum score and the GDS-15. Physical component summary was inversely related to the GDS-15. The 3-BSRS-subitem sum score correlated with suicidal ideation. The data reveal a significant relationship between quality of life and suicidal ideation, which may be affected more by the 3-BSRS-subitem sum score than by the GDS-15. The proposed model has the potential to help healthcare professionals effectively design and implement their suicide prevention programs.
    The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 06/2011; 19(6):597-601. · 3.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to use group integrative reminiscence as a nursing intervention to evaluate the immediate effects on self-esteem, life satisfaction and depressive symptoms for a special group named 'institutionalised older veterans' after a 12-week intervention. The study group comprised institutionalised older veterans with combat experience, including being wounded in war and who were twice forced to relocate. The group participants had lower life satisfaction, and greater use for mental health services and greater non-specific health complaints were reported from this group. Reminiscence therapy has been considered an effective nursing intervention, but the effects on institutionalised older veterans have not been studied. A quasi-experimental design and purposive sampling were conducted. A total of 74 participants were studied with pre- and post-tests to measure the effect of group integrative reminiscence therapy. The activity was held once weekly for 12 weeks. The Life Satisfaction Index A, self-esteem scale and Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form were used as research tools, and the t-test, Fisher's exact test and generalised estimating equation were used for data analysis. All participants were male, with an average age of 81·34 years old, 91·9% unmarried and were in bad health. After 12 weeks of intervention, the reminiscence groups significantly improved their self-esteem and life satisfaction and decreased depressive symptoms compared with control groups. Group integrative reminiscence revealed immediate effects on improving the self-esteem and life satisfaction of institutionalised older veterans, and depressive symptoms were also decreased. Moreover, a sense of positive self-value and belonging to the institution was produced. Group integrative reminiscence is an applicable nursing intervention for vulnerable persons such as institutionalised older veterans. A structured protocol based on the characteristics of the residents and the aim of the intervention can lead nurses to provide appropriate reminiscent activities.
    Journal of Clinical Nursing 06/2011; 20(15-16):2195-203. · 1.32 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 3, 2014