Article

Anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in Korean War veterans 50 years after the war.

Center for Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Australia.
The British Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 6.61). 07/2007; 190:475-83. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.106.025684
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There has been no comprehensive investigation of psychological health in Australia's Korean War veteran population, and few researchers are investigating the health of coalition Korean War veterans into old age.
To investigate the association between war service, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in Australia's 7525 surviving male Korean War veterans and a community comparison group.
A survey was conducted using a self-report postal questionnaire which included the PTSD Checklist, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and the Combat Exposure Scale.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (OR 6.63, P<0.001), anxiety (OR 5.74, P<0.001) and depression (OR 5.45, P<0.001) were more prevalent in veterans than in the comparison group. These disorders were strongly associated with heavy combat and low rank.
Effective intervention is necessary to reduce the considerable psychological morbidity experienced by Korean War veterans. Attention to risk factors and early intervention will be necessary to prevent similar long-term psychological morbidity in veterans of more recent conflicts.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
242 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dose-response relation of war experiences and posttraumatic stress, depression and poor health functioning in late life is well documented in war-affected populations. The influence of differing trauma types experienced by war-affected population in the study of dose-response relation of war trauma and psychological maladaptation in late life has not been investigated. We examined a subgroup of displaced elders and investigated whether specific trauma types were associated with differential health outcomes. From representative practitioner lists, matched groups of former displaced and non-displaced World War II children were assigned, yielding a total sample of 417 participants (response rate 50%). Measurement encompassed a self-report survey including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Consistent dose-relation between war-related experiences and posttraumatic stress or depressive symptoms in late life was found for both, displaced and non-displaced elders, whereas a gradient for poor health perception was only found in displaced people. Trauma types derived from principal component analysis showed differential associations with health outcomes. Human Right Violations emerged as risk factor for posttraumatic stress symptoms and Deprivation & Threat to Life as risk factor for depressive symptoms. Poor self-rated health was associated with multiple trauma types. Non-random recruitment, retrospective design and use of self-report. Posttraumatic stress and depression are associated with war-related experiences more than 60 years after World War II. Results suggest that different trauma types lead to unique variants of syndrome configurations, which may result from different etiological factors.
    Journal of affective disorders 02/2011; 128(3):267-76. · 3.76 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Suicide rates have been increasing in military personnel since the start of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, and it is vital that efforts be made to advance suicide risk assessment techniques and treatment for members of the military who may be experiencing suicidal symptoms. One potential way to advance the understanding of suicide in the military is through the use of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide. This theory proposes that three necessary factors are needed to complete suicide: feelings that one does not belong with other people, feelings that one is a burden on others or society, and an acquired capability to overcome the fear and pain associated with suicide. This review analyzes the various ways that military service may influence suicidal behavior and integrates these findings into an overall framework with relevant practical implications. Findings suggest that although there are many important factors in military suicide, the acquired capability may be the most impacted by military experience because combat exposure and training may cause habituation to fear of painful experiences, including suicide. Future research directions, ways to enhance risk assessment, and treatment implications are also discussed.
    Clinical psychology review 04/2010; 30(3):298-307. · 7.18 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study tested a structural model and examined the relationships between age, suicidal ideation, and scores on the 5-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale (BSRS-5), the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), and the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-12 (MOS SF-12) in a sample of veterans' home residents. Of the 266 individuals recruited, 226 completed the questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 84.9%. Participants completed the BSRS-5, GDS-15, MOS SF-12, and a demographic survey. Analysis of Moment Structures, Version 7.0, was used to test the structural relationships of the model with a structural equation modeling analysis and a maximum likelihood ratio estimation. Patient subitem scores, which ranked their feelings of depression, hostility, and inferiority, were summed to determine their 3-BSRS-subitem sum scores. The measures of model fitness were as follows: goodness-of-fit (χ = 12.03, df = 7, p = 0.1), goodness-of-fit index (0.98), adjusted goodness-of-fit index (0.95), comparative fit index (0.99), parsimony ratio (0.47), and root mean square error of approximation (0.06). All indices suggested that the final model fit the data well. Age was inversely related to physical component summary, which was inversely related to the 3-BSRS-subitem sum score. Mental component summary was inversely related to the 3-BSRS-subitem sum score and the GDS-15. Physical component summary was inversely related to the GDS-15. The 3-BSRS-subitem sum score correlated with suicidal ideation. The data reveal a significant relationship between quality of life and suicidal ideation, which may be affected more by the 3-BSRS-subitem sum score than by the GDS-15. The proposed model has the potential to help healthcare professionals effectively design and implement their suicide prevention programs.
    The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 06/2011; 19(6):597-601. · 3.35 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
159 Downloads
Available from
Jun 3, 2014