Suppression of pancreatic tumor growth by combination chemotherapy with sulindac and LC-1 is associated with cyclin D1 inhibition in vivo.
ABSTRACT The design of novel targeted or combination therapies may improve treatment options for pancreatic cancer. Two targets of recent interest are nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and cyclooxygenase (COX), known to be activated or overexpressed, respectively, in pancreatic cancer. We have previously shown that parthenolide, a proapoptotic drug associated with NF-kappaB inhibition, enhanced the growth suppression of pancreatic cancer cells by the COX inhibitor sulindac in vitro. In the present study, a bioavailable analogue of parthenolide, LC-1, and sulindac were evaluated in vivo using a xenograft model of human pancreatic cancer. Treatment groups included placebo, low-dose/high-dose LC-1 (20 and 40 mg/kg), low-dose/high-dose sulindac (20 and 60 mg/kg), and low-dose combination LC-1/sulindac (20 mg/kg each). In MiaPaCa-2 xenografts, tumor growth was inhibited by either high-dose sulindac or LC-1. In BxPC-3 xenografts, tumor size was significantly reduced by treatment with the low-dose LC-1/sulindac combination or high-dose sulindac alone (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry of BxPC-3 tumors revealed a significant decrease in Ki-67 and CD31 staining by high-dose sulindac, with no significant changes in COX-1/COX-2 levels or activity in any of the treatment groups. NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity was significantly decreased by high-dose LC-1. Cyclin D1 protein levels were reduced by the low-dose LC-1/sulindac combination or high-dose sulindac alone, correlating with BxPC-3 tumor suppression. These results suggest that LC-1 and sulindac may mediate their antitumor effects, in part, by altering cyclin D1 levels. Furthermore, this study provides preclinical evidence for the therapeutic efficacy of these agents.
Article: Synergistic cytotoxic effect of sulindac and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate against ovarian cancer cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, suppresses carcinogenesis and inhibits growth of tumor cells. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a potent NF-κB inhibitor, has been also identified as a potential anti-neoplastic agent. We hypothesized that combination of sulindac and PDTC could result in augmentation of cytotoxicity against ovarian cancer cells. The effect of sulindac and PDTC was examined on several ovarian cancer lines. Tumor cell viability was assessed using the MTT assay. Annexin-V/PI staining was used to detect apoptosis, cell cycle distribution was analyzed in FACS, and expression of cellular proteins was detected by western blotting. Incubation of OVA-14, OVP-10 and CAOV-1 ovarian cancer cells with sulindac and PDTC resulted in significantly greater inhibition of cell viability compared to either compound alone. In a model of OVA-14 cells it was evident that this effect was not related to the expression of COX enzymes since both active (sulindac sulfide) and inactive (sulindac) in vitro compounds affected the growth of tumor cells to a similar extent and synergized in cytotoxicity with PDTC. Combination of sulindac and PDTC lead to G0 arrest and massive apoptosis in co-treated cultures. Western blotting analysis argued for induction of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. These data demonstrate the synergistic cytotoxic effect of sulindac and PDTC on ovarian cancer cells through apoptosis and cell cycle arrest and prompt to test the efficacy of this combination in animal models.Oncology Reports 04/2012; 27(4):1245-50. · 1.84 Impact Factor
Article: Adamantyl Retinoid-Related Molecules Induce Apoptosis in Pancreatic Cancer Cells by Inhibiting IGF-1R and Wnt/β-Catenin Pathways.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic carcinoma has a dismal prognosis as it often presents as locally advanced or metastatic. We have found that exposure to adamantyl-substituted retinoid-related (ARR) compounds 3-Cl-AHPC and AHP3 resulted in growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in PANC-1, Capan-2, and MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell lines. In addition, AHP3 and 3-Cl-AHPC inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in spheres derived from the CD44(+)/CD24(+) (CD133(+)/EpCAM(+)) stem-like cell population isolated from the pancreatic cancer cell lines. 3-Cl-AHPC-induced apoptosis was preceded by decreasing expression of IGF-1R, cyclin D1, β-catenin, and activated Notch-1 in the pancreatic cancer cell lines. Decreased IGF-1R expression inhibited PANC-1 proliferation, enhanced 3-Cl-AHPC-mediated apoptosis, and significantly decreased sphere formation. 3-Cl-AHPC inhibited the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as indicated by decreased β-catenin nuclear localization and inhibited Wnt/β-catenin activation of transcription factor TCF/LEF. Knockdown of β-catenin using sh-RNA also induced apoptosis and inhibited growth in pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, 3-Cl-AHPC and AHP3 induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells and cancer stem-like cells and may serve as an important potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.Journal of Oncology 01/2012; 2012:796729.
Article: Dimethylamino parthenolide enhances the inhibitory effects of gemcitabine in human pancreatic cancer cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Gemcitabine is standard treatment for pancreatic cancer but has limited clinical benefit due to chemoresistance. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) can promote chemoresistance and is therefore an attractive therapeutic target. We hypothesize that NF-κB suppression with the novel, orally bioavailable inhibitor dimethylamino parthenolide (DMAPT) will sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine. BxPC-3, PANC-1, and MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cell lines were treated with gemcitabine and/or DMAPT. Effects on the NF-κB pathway were determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, ELISA, or Western blot. Proliferation and apoptosis were measured by cell counts and ELISA, respectively. The effect of gemcitabine in vivo was determined using a MIA PaCa-2 heterotopic xenograft model. Gemcitabine induced NF-κB activity in BxPC-3, PANC-1, and MIA PaCa-2 cells and decreased the level of the NF-κB inhibitor IκBα in BxPC-3 and PANC-1 cells. DMAPT prevented the gemcitabine-induced activation of NF-κB. The combination of DMAPT/gemcitabine inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth more than either agent alone. Gemcitabine also induced intratumoral NF-κB activity in vivo. DMAPT enhanced the anti-proliferative effects of gemcitabine in association with NF-κB suppression in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, gemcitabine induced NF-κB activity in vivo, thus supporting the evaluation of NF-κB-targeted agents to complement gemcitabine-based therapies.Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 05/2012; 16(7):1333-40. · 2.83 Impact Factor