Suppression of pancreatic tumor growth by combination chemotherapy with sulindac and LC-1 is associated with cyclin D1 inhibition in vivo.
ABSTRACT The design of novel targeted or combination therapies may improve treatment options for pancreatic cancer. Two targets of recent interest are nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and cyclooxygenase (COX), known to be activated or overexpressed, respectively, in pancreatic cancer. We have previously shown that parthenolide, a proapoptotic drug associated with NF-kappaB inhibition, enhanced the growth suppression of pancreatic cancer cells by the COX inhibitor sulindac in vitro. In the present study, a bioavailable analogue of parthenolide, LC-1, and sulindac were evaluated in vivo using a xenograft model of human pancreatic cancer. Treatment groups included placebo, low-dose/high-dose LC-1 (20 and 40 mg/kg), low-dose/high-dose sulindac (20 and 60 mg/kg), and low-dose combination LC-1/sulindac (20 mg/kg each). In MiaPaCa-2 xenografts, tumor growth was inhibited by either high-dose sulindac or LC-1. In BxPC-3 xenografts, tumor size was significantly reduced by treatment with the low-dose LC-1/sulindac combination or high-dose sulindac alone (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry of BxPC-3 tumors revealed a significant decrease in Ki-67 and CD31 staining by high-dose sulindac, with no significant changes in COX-1/COX-2 levels or activity in any of the treatment groups. NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity was significantly decreased by high-dose LC-1. Cyclin D1 protein levels were reduced by the low-dose LC-1/sulindac combination or high-dose sulindac alone, correlating with BxPC-3 tumor suppression. These results suggest that LC-1 and sulindac may mediate their antitumor effects, in part, by altering cyclin D1 levels. Furthermore, this study provides preclinical evidence for the therapeutic efficacy of these agents.
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ABSTRACT: Activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) has been implicated in pancreatic tumorigenesis. We evaluated the effect of a novel NF-kappa B inhibitor, parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the herb feverfew, in three human pancreatic tumor cell lines (BxPC-3, PANC-1, and MIA PaCa-2). Parthenolide inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth in a dose-dependent manner with substantial growth inhibition observed between 5 and 10 micromol/L parthenolide in all three cell lines. Parthenolide treatment also dose-dependently increased the amount of the NF-kappa B inhibitory protein, I kappa B-alpha, and decreased NF-kappa B DNA binding activity. We have previously shown that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) suppress the growth of pancreatic cancer cells. To determine whether inhibition of the NF-kappa B pathway by parthenolide could sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to NSAID inhibition, BxPC-3, PANC-1, and MIA PaCa-2 cells were treated with parthenolide and the NSAID sulindac, either alone or in combination. Treatment with the combination of parthenolide and sulindac inhibited cell growth synergistically in MIA PaCa-2 and BxPC-3 cells and additively in PANC-1 cells. In addition, treatment with the parthenolide/sulindac combination lowered the threshold for apoptosis. Increased levels of I kappa B-alpha protein were detected, especially in MIA PaCa-2 cells, after treatment with parthenolide and sulindac compared with each agent alone. Similarly, decreased NF-kappa B DNA binding and transcriptional activities were detected in cells treated with the combination compared with the single agents, demonstrating cooperative targeting of the NF-kappa B pathway. These data provide preclinical support for a combined chemotherapeutic approach with NF-kappa B inhibitors and NSAIDs for the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 05/2005; 4(4):587-94. · 5.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancers often progress from a hormone-dependent, nonmetastatic, antiestrogen-sensitive phenotype to a hormone-independent, antiestrogen- and chemotherapy-resistant phenotype with highly invasive and metastatic growth properties. This progression is usually accompanied by altered function of the estrogen receptor (ER) or outgrowth of ER-negative cancer cells. To understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for metastatic growth of ER-negative breast cancers, the activities of the transcription factor NF-kappaB (which modulates the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and metastasis) were compared in ER-positive (MCF-7 and T47-D) and ER-negative (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435) human breast cancer cell lines. NF-kappaB, which is usually maintained in an inactive state by protein-protein interaction with inhibitor IkappaBs, was found to be constitutively active in ER-negative breast cancer cell lines. Constitutive DNA binding of NF-kappaB was also observed with extracts from ER-negative, poorly differentiated primary breast tumors. Progression of the rat mammary carcinoma cell line RM22-F5 from an ER-positive, nonmalignant phenotype (E phenotype) to an ER-negative, malignant phenotype (F phenotype) was also accompanied by constitutive activation of NF-kappaB. Analysis of individual subunits of NF-kappaB revealed that all ER-negative cell lines, including RM22-F5 cells of F phenotype, contain a unique 37-kDa protein which is antigenically related to the RelA subunit. Cell-type-specific differences in IkappaB alpha, -beta, and -gamma were also observed. In transient-transfection experiments, constitutive activity of an NF-kappaB-dependent promoter was observed in MDA-MB-231 and RM22-F5 cells of F phenotype, and this activity was efficiently repressed by cotransfected ER. Since ER inhibits the constitutive as well as inducible activation function of NF-kappaB in a dose-dependent manner, we propose that breast cancers that lack functional ER overexpress NF-kappaB-regulated genes. Furthermore, since recent data indicate that NF-kappaB protects cells from tumor necrosis factor alpha-, ionizing radiation-, and chemotherapeutic agent daunorubicin-mediated apoptosis, our results provide an explanation for chemotherapeutic resistance in ER-negative breast cancers.Molecular and Cellular Biology 08/1997; 17(7):3629-39. · 5.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent epidemiologic studies have shown a 40-50% reduction in mortality from colorectal cancer in individuals who take nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on a regular basis compared with those not taking these agents. One property shared by all of these drugs is their ability to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX), a key enzyme in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. Two isoforms of COX have been characterized, COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 is expressed at high levels in intestinal tumors in humans and rodents. Human colon cancer cells (Caco-2) were permanently transfected with a COX-2 expression vector or the identical vector lacking the COX-2 insert. The Caco-2 cells, which constitutively expressed COX-2, acquired increased invasiveness compared with the parental Caco-2 cells or the vector transfected control cells. Biochemical changes associated with this phenotypic change included activation of metalloproteinase-2 and increased RNA levels for the membrane-type metalloproteinase. Increased invasiveness and prostaglandin production were reversed by treatment with sulindac sulfide, a known COX inhibitor. These studies demonstrate that constitutive expression of COX-2 can lead to phenotypic changes that alter the metastatic potential of colorectal cancer cells.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/1997; 94(7):3336-40. · 9.74 Impact Factor