[A comparative evaluation of immunohistochemical markers for the differential diagnosis between malignant mesothelioma, non-small cell carcinoma involving the pleura, and benign reactive mesothelial cell proliferation].
ABSTRACT Histopathological diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma (MM) and differentiating it from tumors infiltrating the pleura is very difficult. Distinguishing benign reactive mesothelial cell proliferation from MM also presents problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the significance of selected immunohistochemical stains in differentiating MM from non-small cell lung cancers infiltrating the pleura and from benign reactive mesothelial cell proliferation.
The material encompassed 86 cases of MM, 54 cases of NSCLC infiltrating the pleura, and 43 cases of benign reactive mesothelial cell proliferation. The MM cases were reclassified according to the WHO criteria (2004): epithelioid, 61 cases (71%), including well-differentiated papillomatous, 3 cases; sarcomatous, 6 cases (6.8%); fibrous, 4 cases (4.7%); biphasic, 15 cases (17.5%). A panel of immunohistochemical stains was used in this study. It included broad-spectrum antibodies to cytokeratins (CKAE1/AE3, CKMNF116), vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), mesothelial cells (HBME1, CK5/6, calretinin), adenocarcinoma cells (BerEp4, B72.3, CEA, TTF1), antibodies enabling the assessment of proliferation (Mib1) and cell-cycle regulating proteins (p53).
Coexpression of cytokeratins and vimentin was found in 63.9% of MM cases and cell-membrane reactions with EMA were seen in 58.9%. Positive staining for HBME1, CK5/6, calretinin, BerEp4, B72.3, CEA and p53 was obtained in 76.7%, 51.2%, 66.7%, 1.2%, 6.2%, 1.2% and 51% of the cases, respectively. None of the MM cases stained for TTF1. MM by WHO subgroups: Coexpression of cytokeratins and vimentin occurred in 55.7% cases of epithelioid MM, 93.3% of biphasic MM, 66.6% of sarcomatous MM, and in 100% of fibrous MM cases. Positive staining for HBME1, CK5/6, and calretinin was seen only in the epithelioid and mixed subtypes of MM; the respective percentages of positive reactions were: HBME1, 90.2% and 73.3%; CK5/6 58.2% and 53.3%; calretinin, 72% and 75%. Non-small cell lung cancers infiltrating the pleura: Coexpression of cytokeratin and vimentin was found in 17.6% of the cases, positive staining of membranes for EMA, in 13% cases. Positive staining for HBME1 was observed in 22.6% of the cases, for CK5/6, in 9.3%, for calretinin, in 2%, for BerEp4, in 72.2%, for B72.3, in 64.1%, for CEA, in 58.5%, and for TTF1, in 43.8%. Benign reactive mesothelial cell proliferation: Protein p53 was present in 9.3% of cases, whereas no positive staining for EMA was found. Differentiation of MM from non-small cell carcinomas: Among the antibodies used in the study, anti-HBME1 had the highest sensitivity (76.7%) but lowest specificity (77.4%). Staining for calretinin showed high specificity (99.8%), as did CEA and TTF1 (98.8% and 100%), with moderate sensitivity (66.7%, 58.5% and 43.8%, respectively). BerEp4 showed the highest sensitivity (72.2%) and specificity (98.8%).
In diagnosing mesothelioma it is necessary to use a panel of immunohistochemical stains, which should contain antibodies to markers for adenocarcinoma and mesothelioma. Due to the high costs of such a study, a two-stage method is advantageous. The best combination of sensitivity and specificity was found for BerEp4, CEA, and TTF1 and for calretinin and HBME1. In the diagnosis of spindle-cell pleural tumors and the fibrous form of MM and benign reactive mesothelial cell proliferation , markers of mesothelial cells are noncontributory. Immunohistochemical staining fails to identify a reactive process, but a diffuse, positive stain for EMA and the presence of protein p53 support the diagnosis of MM.
SourceAvailable from: Elisabetta Buommino[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a fatal malignancy linked to asbestos exposure. The main challenge for mesothelioma treatment is to go beyond the drug resistance, in particular against cisplatin (CDDP), one of the most used chemotherapeutic drug. 3-O-methylfunicone (OMF) is a metabolite produced by the fungus Penicillium pinophilum; its antiproliferative properties have been previously studied in vitro. Particularly, OMF is able to inhibit mesothelioma cell motility. To improve the effects of CDDP by-passing the resistance of mesothelioma cells to this drug, in the present study we investigated the combined treatment of OMF with CDDP respectively in an established mesothelioma cell line (NCI) and primary mesothelioma cells (Mest). As compared to the effect of single treatments, the combination of OMF and CDDP resulted in a stronger inhibition of NCI and Mest cell proliferation. OMF combination with CDDP was also able to affect the migratory ability of NCI and Mest cells by down-regulating αv and β5 expression and reducing metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) production. In addition, this association was effective in modulating VEGF gene expression. This finding highlights the possibility to use OMF and CDDP together to regulate angiogenesis and tumour progression in mesothelioma.Investigational New Drugs 06/2011; 30(4):1343-51. DOI:10.1007/s10637-011-9698-1 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 3-O-methylfunicone (OMF), a secondary metabolite produced by Penicillium pinophilum, affects cell proliferation and motility in a variety of human solid tumours. The aim of this study was to demonstrate whether OMF has the ability to arrest cell division and motility, in a human mesothelioma cell line. Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer that does not respond to standard therapies the cells of which are considered to be highly resistant to apoptosis. Cell motility and invasion were measured using a modified Boyden chamber. Gene expression was examined by RT-PCR, while ERK1/2 was investigated by Western blot analysis. All experiments were also performed on primary cultures of mesothelial cells. The present study shows that OMF inhibited motility of the NCI mesothelioma cell line by modulating ERK signalling activity, and affected alphaVbeta5 integrin and MMP-2 expression, inducing marked downregulation at both mRNA and protein levels. Substantial downregulation of VEGF gene expression was also demonstrated. These effects were not observed in normal mesothelial cell cultures. OMF may have potential as a naturally derived anti-tumour drug for treatment of mesothelioma.Cell Proliferation 04/2010; 43(2):114-23. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2010.00663.x · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Both pathologists and clinicians are challenged by the diagnosis of a particular variant of the peripheral adenocarcinoma with involvement of the pleura parietalis, the so-called pseudo-mesotheliomatous adenocarcinoma of the lung (PMAC), which is hard to differentiate from epithelioid mesothelioma on imaging and cytology, macroscopically as well as histologically. However, the exact diagnosis is not only crucial for the patient's therapy but also for insurance matters. Immunohistochemical evaluation represents a quick and a relatively cheap tool for which a few antibody panels have been proposed in recent years as being suitable to distinguish between these two entities. One of the positive markers for epithelioid mesothelioma most often suggested seems to be calretinin. We would like to report on a case of PMAC with the special feature of positive calretinin immunohistochemical staining. Using histochemistry and a few additional antibodies we were able to reliably characterize the tumor and provide the patient with appropriate therapy. This article gives a short overview of the possibilities available for distinguishing between these two entities in the context of a case report.Der Pathologe 10/2009; 31(4):283-9. · 0.64 Impact Factor