Multivariable predictors of postoperative surgical site infection after general and vascular surgery: Results from the Patient Safety in Surgery Study
ABSTRACT Surgical site infection (SSI) is a potentially preventable complication. We developed and tested a model to predict patients at high risk for surgical site infection.
Data from the Patient Safety in Surgery Study/National Surgical Quality Improvement Program from a 3-year period were used to develop and test a predictive model of SSI using logistic regression analyses.
From October 2001 through September 2004, 7,035 of 163,624 (4.30%) patients undergoing vascular and general surgical procedures at 14 academic and 128 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers experienced SSI. Fourteen variables independently associated with increased risk of SSI included patient factors (age greater than 40 years, diabetes, dyspnea, use of steroids, alcoholism, smoking, recent radiotherapy, and American Society of Anesthesiologists class 2 or higher), preoperative laboratory values (albumin<3.5 mg/dL, total bilirubin>1.0 mg/dL), and operative characteristics (emergency, complexity [work relative value units>/=10], type of procedure, and wound classification). The SSI risk score is more accurate than the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance score in predicting SSI (c-indices 0.70, 0.62, respectively).
We developed and tested an accurate prediction score for SSI. Clinicians can use this score to predict their patient's risk of an SSI and implement appropriate prevention strategies.
SourceAvailable from: Ozan Akca[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tissue oxygenation is a strong predictor of surgical site infection. Improving tissue oxygenation should thus reduce wound infection risk. Supplemental inspired oxygen can improve tissue oxygenation, but whether it reduces infection risk remains controversial. Low-dose dexamethasone is often given to reduce the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting, but steroid-induced immunosuppression can increase infection risk. We therefore tested the hypotheses that supplemental perioperative oxygen reduces infection risk and that dexamethasone increases it. Using a factorial design, patients having colorectal resections expected to last ≥2 h were randomly assigned to 30% (n=270) or 80% (n=285) inspired oxygen during and for 1 h after surgery, and to 4 mg intraoperative dexamethasone (n=283) or placebo (n=272). Physicians blinded to group assignments evaluated wounds postoperatively, using US Centers for Disease Control criteria. Subject and surgical characteristics were similar among study groups. Surgical site infection incidence was similar among groups: 30% oxygen 15.6%, 80% oxygen 15.8% (P=1.00); dexamethasone 15.9%, placebo 15.4%, (P=0.91). Supplemental oxygen did not reduce surgical site infection risk. The preponderance of clinical evidence suggests that administration of 80% supplemental inspired oxygen does not reduce infection risk. We did not observe an increased risk of surgical site infection with the use of a single low dose of dexamethasone, indicating that it can be used for nausea and vomiting prophylaxis without promoting wound infections. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00273377. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 04/2015; DOI:10.1093/bja/aev062 · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the most common hospital acquired infection in surgical patients, occurring in approximately 300,000-500,000 patients a year. SSIs occur across all surgical specialties, but have increased importance in abdominal, colorectal, obstetrical, gynecological, cardiac, vascular, neurological, transplant, and orthopedic procedures where either the inherent risk is elevated or the consequence of an infection would be severe. Current prevention guidelines reduce, but do not completely eliminate, the occurrence of SSIs. We have found the use of silver-nylon wound dressings to significantly reduce the risk SSI associated with colorectal surgery. In this review, we examine the incidence of SSI in high-risk groups, and identify procedures where silver dressings, and other silver products, have been evaluated for the prevention of SSI. Silver-nylon dressings are a useful adjunct in the prevention of SSI in colorectal surgery, neurological surgery, spinal surgery, and certain cardiovascular and orthopedic procedures. Gynecologic, obstetric, breast, transplant, neck, and bariatric procedures, and surgery in obese and diabetic patients, represent other areas where patients are at increased risk of SSI, but in which silver dressings have not been adequately evaluated yet. Recommendation is made for large prospective studies of silver dressings in these populations.Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 12/2014; 40 Suppl 1:S30-9. DOI:10.1016/j.burns.2014.09.011 · 1.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Operative complications occur more frequently, often are more preventable, and their consequences can be more severe than other types of complications. Controversy exists regarding how best to identify and predict operative complications. Several studies on predictive factors for operative complications focused on a specific predictor for a specific outcome. To develop a reliable tool to identify patients with operative complications, insight in predictive factors for operative complications is required. We searched all publications addressing predictive factors for the development of operative complications in adult patients admitted to the gastrointestinal, vascular, or general surgery departments. Data were extracted regarding study design, patient characteristics, operative specialty, types of operative procedures, types of complications, possible predictors, and associated complication risk increase (expressed as an odds ratio; OR). The final set of 30 articles yielded a total of 53 predictive factors studied in various settings, operative specialties, and disorders. To focus our analysis we selected the 25 most robust and clinically applicable factors (ie, appearing in 3 or more studies). These factors were then categorized into 4 different groups: Patient-related factors, Co-morbidities, Laboratory values, and Surgery-related factors. The most predictive factors for morbidity in these groups were body mass index (ORs from 1.80 to 6.30), age (1.02-4.62 years), American Society of Anesthesiologists classification (1.77-7.10), dyspnea (1.23-1.30), serum creatinine (1.39-2.14), emergency surgery (1.50-2.54), and functional status (1.36-4.07). This review presents a set of factors predictive of operative complications for general surgery departments. These easily retrievable factors can and should be validated in the specific patient populations of each hospital. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Surgery 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.surg.2015.01.012 · 3.11 Impact Factor