To determine whether the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level in follicular fluid is associated with success in oocyte fertilization during in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles.
Tokyo Medical University hospital.
Thirty-one women undergoing IVF cycles.
The women were divided into two groups according to the success or failure of fertilization. Follicular fluid samples were obtained from a single follicle in each patient.
Assessment of values for AMH, inhibin B, and estradiol from follicular fluid and serum on the day of oocyte retrieval during IVF treatment.
The follicular fluid AMH levels from fertilized patients (group 1) were 3.42 times higher than from nonfertilized (group 2). There was no correlation between the ratio of the high quality grade embryos and either serum AMH or inhibin B levels. There was no statistically significant correlation between serum AMH and the number of oocytes. However, there was a strong correlation between levels of serum estradiol, inhibin B, and the number of oocytes.
Oocytes are more likely to be fertilized when follicles are able to make high concentrations of AMH in the follicular fluid. Thus, AMH could be a prediction marker for fertilization.
"Fanchin et al. (14) demonstrated that FF AMH levels of the preovulatory follicle are positively associated with embryo implantation. Takahashi et al. (16) showed that oocytes are more likely to be fertilized when follicles have high concentrations of AMH. However, there have been very few studies on the direct relationship between FF AMH levels and quality of oocyte and embryo and this issue require further study. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This prospective study investigated the relationship between anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level in the follicular fluid (FF) and the quality of the oocyte and embryo. A total of 65 FF samples from 54 women were included in this study. FF was collected from the largest preovulatory follicle sized≥20 mm of mean diameter from each ovary. Samples were divided into 3 groups according to the FF AMH levels: below the 33th percentile (low group, FF AMH<2.1 ng/mL, n=21), between the 33th and the 67th percentile (intermediate group, FF AMH=2.1-3.6 ng/mL, n=22), and above the 67th percentile (high group, FF AMH>3.6 ng/mL, n=22). The quality of the ensuing oocytes and embryos was evaluated by fertilization rate and embryo score. FF AMH levels correlated positively with the matched embryo score on day 3 after fertilization (r=0.331, P=0.015). The normal fertilization rate was significantly lower in the low group than in the intermediate group (61.9% vs. 95.5% vs. 77.3%, respectively, P=0.028). Our results suggest that the FF AMH level could be a predictor of the ensuing oocyte and embryo quality.
Journal of Korean Medical Science 09/2014; 29(9):1266-70. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.9.1266 · 1.27 Impact Factor
"Intrafollicular AMH, measured at the time of follicular aspiration in conventional gonadotrophin-stimulated IVF therapies (cIVF), has been identified as a marker for oocyte implantation potential. In several studies, high AMH concentrations have correlated with the pregnancy rate (Fanchin et al., 2007; Takahashi et al., 2008; Pabuccu et al., 2009). However, the investigation of the mechanisms which stimulate AMH production has only been rudimentally investigated to date. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Is the steroid hormone profile in follicular fluid (FF) at the time of oocyte retrieval different in naturally matured follicles, as in natural cycle IVF (NC-IVF), compared with follicles stimulated with conventional gonadotrophin stimulated IVF (cIVF)?
Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) concentrations are ∼3-fold higher, androstenedione (A2) is ∼1.5-fold higher and luteinizing hormone (LH) is ∼14-fold higher in NC-IVF than in cIVF follicles, suggesting an alteration of the follicular metabolism in conventional gonadotrophin stimulated IVF.
In conventional IVF, the implantation rate of unselected embryos appears to be lower than in NC-IVF, which is possibly due to negative effects of the stimulation regimen on follicular metabolism. In NC-IVF, the intrafollicular concentration of AMH has been shown to be positively correlated with the oocyte fertilization and implantation rates. Furthermore, androgen treatment seems to improve the ovarian response in low responders.
This cross-sectional study involving 36 NC-IVF and 40 cIVF cycles was performed from 2011 to 2013. Within this population, 13 women each underwent 1 NC-IVF and 1 cIVF cycle. cIVF was performed by controlled ovarian stimulation with HMG and GnRH antagonists.
Follicular fluid was collected from the leading follicles. AMH, T, A2, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), E2, FSH, LH and progesterone (P) were determined by immunoassays in 76 women. Aromatase activity in follicular fluid cells was analysed by a tritiated water release assay in 33 different women. For statistical analysis, the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U or Wilcoxon tests were used.
In follicular fluid from NC-IVF and from cIVF, median levels were 32.8 and 10.7 pmol/l for AMH (P < 0.0001), 47.2 and 18.8 µmol/l for T (P < 0.0001), 290 and 206 nmol/l for A2 (P = 0.0035), 6.7 and 5.6 pg/ml for DHEA (n.s.), 3292 and 1225 nmol/l for E2 (P < 0.0001), 4.9 and 7.2 mU/ml for FSH (P < 0.05), 14.4 and 0.9 mU/ml for LH (P < 0.0001) and 62 940 and 54 710 nmol/l for P (n.s.), respectively. Significant differences in follicular fluid concentrations for AMH, E2 and LH were also found in the 13 patients who underwent both NC-IVF and cIVF when they were analysed separately in pairs. Hormone analysis in serum excluded any relevant impact of AMH, T, A2, and E2 serum concentration on the follicular fluid hormone concentrations. Median serum concentrations were 29.4 and 0.9 mU/ml for LH (P < 0.0001) and 2.7 and 23.5 nmol/l for P (P < 0.0001) after NC-IVF and c-IVF, respectively. Positive correlations were seen for FF-AMH with FF-T (r = 0.35, P = 0.0002), FF-T with FF-LH (r = 0.48, P < 0.0001) and FF-E2 with FF-T (r = 0.75, P < 0.0001). The analysis of aromatase activity was not different in NC-IVF and cIVF follicular cells.
Any association between the hormone concentrations and the implantation potential of the oocytes could not be investigated as the oocytes in cIVF were not treated individually in the IVF laboratory. Since both c-IVF and NC-IVF follicles were stimulated by hCG before retrieval, the endocrine milieu in the natural cycle does not represent the pure physiological situation.
The endocrine follicular milieu and the concentration of putative markers of oocyte quality, such as AMH, are significantly different in gonadotrophin-stimulated conventional IVF compared with natural cycle IVF. This could be a cause for the suggested lower oocyte quality in cIVF compared with naturally matured oocytes. The reasons for the reduced AMH concentration might be low serum and follicular fluid LH concentrations due to LH suppression, leading initially to low follicular androgen concentrations and then to low follicular AMH production.
Funding for this study was obtained from public universities (for salaries) and private industry (for consumables). Additionally, the study was supported by an unrestricted grant from MSD Merck Sharp & Dohme GmbH and IBSA Institut Biochimique SA. The authors are clinically involved in low-dose monofollicular stimulation and IVF therapies, using gonadotrophins from all gonadotrophin distributors on the Swiss market, including Institut Biochimique SA and MSD Merck Sharp & Dohme GmbH. Otherwise, the authors have no competing interests.
Human Reproduction 03/2014; 29(5). DOI:10.1093/humrep/deu044 · 4.57 Impact Factor
"These results are consistent with the results of Fanchin et al. (2007). On the other hand, a retrospective study by Takahashi et al. (2008) found a positive relationship between FF AMH and fertilization rate. Fertilization rate depends on factors other than oocyte quality (e.g. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) expression and secretion from cumulus granulosa cells (GC) and steroidogenesis in follicular fluids (FF) with relation to oocyte maturational stages and fertilization capacity in large preovulatory follicles. This prospective study included 53 ovulatory women undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection. FF and cumulus GC from 140 large preovulatory follicles were individually obtained during oocyte retrieval. Main outcome measures were oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo quality. FF were assayed for AMH, progesterone, 17 beta-oestradiol and testosterone. Cumulus GC were assayed for AMH mRNA expression. AMH mRNA expression and secretion in cumulus GC in preovulatory follicles containing germinal-vesicle (GV) and metaphase-I (MI) oocytes were significantly higher than follicles containing MII oocytes (P < 0.01 and P < 0.0001, respectively). In addition, FF AMH concentrations from atretic oocytes were significantly higher than from MII oocytes. No correlation was found between AMH expression and secretion to fertilization or embryo quality. FF of MI and GV oocytes had higher concentrations of testosterone and lower progesterone/oestradiol ratios than MII oocytes, and FF of atretic oocytes contained higher testosterone concentrations than FF of MII oocytes. AMH is highly expressed in and secreted from cumulus GC of preovulatory follicles containing premature and atretic oocytes.
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