Article

Mitochondrial fission and fusion mediators, hFis1 and OPA1, modulate cellular senescence

Department of Biochemistry, Ajou University School of Medicine, Ajou University, 5 Wonchon-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 443-721, Korea.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.6). 09/2007; 282(31):22977-83. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M700679200
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The number and morphology of mitochondria within a cell are precisely regulated by the mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery. The human protein, hFis1, participates in mitochondrial fission by recruiting the Drp1 into the mitochondria. Using short hairpin RNA, we reduced the expression levels of hFis1 in mammalian cells. Cells lacking hFis1 showed sustained elongation of mitochondria and underwent significant cellular morphological changes, including enlargement, flattening, and increased cellular granularity. In these cells, staining for acidic senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity was elevated, and the rate of cell proliferation was greatly reduced, indicating that cells lacking hFis1 undergo senescence-associated phenotypic changes. Reintroduction of the hFis1 gene into hFis1-depleted cells restored mitochondrial fragmentation and suppressed senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity. Moreover, depletion of both hFis1 and OPA1, a critical component of mitochondrial fusion, resulted in extensive mitochondrial fragmentation and markedly rescued cells from senescence-associated phenotypic changes. Intriguingly, sustained elongation of mitochondria was associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased reactive oxygen species production, and DNA damage. The data indicate that sustained mitochondrial elongation induces senescence-associated phenotypic changes that can be neutralized by mitochondrial fragmentation. Thus, one of the key functions of mitochondrial fission might be prevention of the sustained extensive mitochondrial elongation that triggers cellular senescence.

0 Followers
 · 
146 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In healthy cells, mitochondria continually divide and fuse to form a dynamic interconnecting network. The molecular machinery that mediates this organelle fission and fusion is necessary to maintain mitochondrial integrity, perhaps by facilitating DNA or protein quality control. This network disintegrates during apoptosis at the time of cytochrome c release and prior to caspase activation, yielding more numerous and smaller mitochondria. Recent work shows that proteins involved in mitochondrial fission and fusion also actively participate in apoptosis induction. This review will cover the recent advances and presents competing models on how the mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery may intersect apoptosis pathways.
    Genes & Development 07/2008; 22(12):1577-90. DOI:10.1101/gad.1658508 · 12.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mitochondria in numerous cell types, especially in cultured cells, form a reticular network undergoing constant fusion and fission. The three dimensional (3D) morphology of these networks however has not been studied in detail to our knowledge. We have investigated insulinoma INS-1E and hepatocellular carcinoma HEP-G2 cells transfected with mitochondria-addressed GFP. Using 4Pi microscopy, 3D morphology changes responding to decreased oxidative phosphorylation and/or energetic status could be observed in these cells at an unprecedented 100 nm level of detail. In INS-1E cells cultivated at 11 mM glucose, the mitoreticulum appears predominantly as one interconnected mitochondrion with a nearly constant 262+/-26 nm tubule diameter. If cultured at 5 mM glucose, INS-1E cells show 311+/-36 nm tubules coexisting with numerous flat cisternae. Similar interconnected 284+/-38 nm and 417+/-110 nm tubules were found in HEP-G2 cells cultivated at 5 mM and hyperglycaemic 25 mM glucose, respectively. With rotenone inhibiting respiration to approximately 10%, disintegration into several reticula and numerous approximately 300 nm spheres or short tubules was observed. De-energization by uncoupling additionally led to formation of rings and bulky cisternae of 1.4+/-0.4 microm diameter. Rotenone and uncoupler acted synergically in INS-1E cells and increased fusion (ongoing with fission) forming bowl-like shapes. In HEP-G2 cells fission partially ceased with FCCP plus rotenone. Thus we have revealed previously undescribed details for shapes upon mitochondrial disintegration and clearly demonstrate that high resolution 3D microscopy is required for visualization of mitochondrial network. We recommend 4Pi microscopy as a new standard.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 07/2008; 1777(7-8):834-46. DOI:10.1016/j.bbabio.2008.04.002 · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is one of the most common causes of fatty acid oxidation metabolism disorders. However, the molecular mechanism between CPT2 gene polymorphisms and metabolic stress has not been fully clarified. We previously reported that a number of patients show a thermal instable phenotype of compound hetero/homozygous variants of CPT II. To understand the mechanism of the metabolic disorder resulting from CPT II deficiency, the present study investigated CPT II variants in patient fibroblasts, [c.1102 G>A (p.V368I)] (heterozygous), [c.1102 G>A (p.V368I)] (homozygous), and [c.1055 T>G (p.F352C)] (heterozygous) + [c.1102 G>A (p.V368I)] (homozygous) compared with fibroblasts from healthy controls. CPT II variants exerted an effect of dominant negative on the homotetrameric proteins that showed thermal instability, reduced residual enzyme activities and a short half-life. Moreover, CPT II variant fibroblasts showed a significant decrease in fatty acid β-oxidation and adenosine triphosphate generation, combined with a reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Collectively, our data indicate that the CPT II deficiency induces an energy crisis of the fatty acid metabolic pathway. These findings may contribute to the elucidation of the genetic factors involved in metabolic disorder encephalopathy caused by the CPT II deficiency.
    PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0119936. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119936 · 3.53 Impact Factor