AI-850, paclitaxel in a novel polyoxyethylated castor oil-free hydrophobic microparticle delivery system, is being developed based on its favorable preclinical safety and antitumor activity profiles. The objectives of the study were to assess the feasibility and safety of administering AI-850 as a <30-min i.v. infusion without premedication every 3 weeks, determine the maximum tolerated dose and the phase II recommended dose of AI-850, study the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel in this new formulation, and seek evidence of anticancer activity.
This was an open-label phase I dose escalation study of AI-850 in patients with advanced solid malignancies. AI-850 doses were escalated according to a modified Fibonacci scheme. Clinical and laboratory toxicity was monitored, and paclitaxel plasma concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Twenty-two patients received 56 courses of AI-850 at five dose cohorts ranging from 36 to 250 mg/m(2). Grade 4 neutropenia, either exceeding 5 days or complicated by fever, was dose limiting in two of six patients at 250 mg/m(2) AI-850. Three patients experienced grade 2 to 4 infusion-related adverse reactions. Toxicities, including fatigue, alopecia, nausea and vomiting, neuropathy, anorexia, and myalgia, were mild to moderate, reversible, and not dose related. Pharmacokinetics of free and total paclitaxel showed biexponential plasma decay and dose proportionality for maximum plasma paclitaxel concentration and area under the concentration versus time curve. Antitumor activity was documented in two patients with endometrial and tongue carcinomas.
The administration of AI-850 as a brief infusion once every 3 weeks was feasible at doses up to 205 mg/m(2). The potential of AI-850 as an alternative to other approved paclitaxel formulations requires further clinical evaluation.
"Traditionally, such studies may involve about 12 to 20 patients who are treated with the drug under investigation at escalating doses. This may be achieved either through dose escalation in the same individuals or by increasing doses between patient cohorts, for instance by using a Fibonacci approach . Often, such studies involve a pharmacokinetic component, in which pharmacokinetic parameters such as plasma half-life and drug clearance rate are assessed. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although phase I to III trials represent the standard for introducing new drugs to clinical therapy, there has been increasing demand for translational research in oncology over the past decade. Thus, for most novel therapies such as 'targeted agents', a critical aspect for drug development in oncology has been to select the right patients for therapy. Translational research plays a pivotal role, not only in phase II trials but also in phase I and III and even in phase IV trials. The importance of distinguishing between our translational 'aims' in phase II and phase III trials is emphasized. Although translational research in phase III trials aims to identify optimal markers for clinical use, phase II studies may represent an optimal setting to explore tumour biology and the mechanisms of drug resistance in depth.
Breast cancer research: BCR 02/2008; 10 Suppl 4(Suppl 4):S22. DOI:10.1186/bcr2182 · 5.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop a rapidly dissolving porous particle formulation of paclitaxel without Cremophor EL that is appropriate for quick intravenous administration.
A rapidly dissolving porous particle formulation of paclitaxel (AI-850) was created using spray drying. AI-850 was compared to Taxol following intravenous administration in a rat pharmacokinetic study, a rat tissue distribution study, and a human xenograft mammary tumor (MDA-MB-435) model in nude mice.
The volume of distribution and clearance for paclitaxel following intravenous bolus administration of AI-850 were 7-fold and 4-fold greater, respectively, than following intravenous bolus administration of Taxol. There were no significant differences between AI-850 and Taxol in tissue concentrations and tissue area under the curve (AUC) for the tissues examined. Nude mice implanted with mammary tumors showed improved tolerance of AI-850, enabling higher administrable does of paclitaxel, which resulted in improved efficacy as compared to Taxol administered at its maximum tolerated dose (MTD).
The pharmacokinetic data indicate that paclitaxel in AI-850 has more rapid partitioning from the bloodstream into the tissue compartments than paclitaxel in Taxol. AI-850, administered as an intravenous injection, has been shown to have improved tolerance in rats and mice and improved efficacy in a tumor model in mice when compared to Taxol.
Pharmaceutical Research 04/2005; 22(3):347-55. DOI:10.1007/s11095-004-1871-1 · 3.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In animal experiments paclitaxel oleate associated with a cholesterol-rich nanoemulsion concentrated in the neoplastic tissues and showed reduced toxicity and increased antitumor activity compared with paclitaxel-Cremophor EL. Here, a clinical study was performed in breast cancer patients to evaluate the tumoral uptake, pharmacokinetics and toxicity of paclitaxel associated to nanoemulsions.
Twenty-four hours before mastectomy [(3)H]-paclitaxel oleate associated with [(14)C]-cholesteryl oleate-nanoemulsion or [(3)H]-paclitaxel in Cremophor EL were injected into five patients for collection of blood samples and fragments of tumor and normal breast tissue. A pilot clinical study of paclitaxel-nanoemulsion administered at 3-week intervals was performed in four breast cancer patients with refractory advanced disease at 175 and 220 mg/m(2) dose levels.
T (1/2) of paclitaxel oleate associated to the nanoemulsion was greater than that of paclitaxel (t (1/2) = 15.4 +/- 4.7 and 3.5 +/- 0.80 h). Uptake of the [(14)C]-cholesteryl ester nanoemulsion and [(3)H]-paclitaxel oleate by breast malignant tissue was threefold greater than the normal breast tissue and toxicity was minimal at the two dose levels.
Our results suggest that the paclitaxel-nanoemulsion preparation can be advantageous for use in the treatment of breast cancer because the pharmacokinetic parameters are improved, the drug is concentrated in the neoplastic tissue and the toxicity of paclitaxel is reduced.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 04/2008; 63(2):281-7. DOI:10.1007/s00280-008-0738-2 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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