Nitric oxide (NO) serves as a retrograde messenger to activate neuronal NO synthase in the spinal cord via NMDA receptors.
ABSTRACT We have recently demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) produced by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in the spinal cord is involved in the maintenance of neuropathic pain. To clarify whether NO itself affected nNOS activity in the spinal cord as a retrograde messenger, we examined the involvement of the NO/cGMP signaling pathway in the regulation of nNOS activity by NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. NO-generating agents NOR3 (t(1/2)=30min) and SNAP (t(1/2)=5h), but not NOR1 (t(1/2)=1.8min), significantly enhanced NADPH-diaphorase staining in the spinal cord. 8-Br-cGMP also enhanced it similar to that by NOR3, and 8-Br-cAMP and forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, enhanced it moderately. NOR1 and NOR3 markedly increased the cGMP level in the spinal cord. The enhancement of NADPH-diaphorase staining by NOR3 was significantly inhibited by CPTIO, an NO scavenger, ODQ, a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, and KT5823, an inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. Additionally, the NOR3-enhanced nNOS activity was completely inhibited by NMDA antagonists MK-801 and d-AP5, partially by the GluRepsilon2-selective antagonist CP-101,606, and was attenuated in GluRepsilon1(-/-) and GluRepsilon1(-/-)/epsilon4(-/-) mice. These results suggest that NO may regulate nNOS activity as a retrograde messenger in the spinal cord via activation of NMDA receptor containing GluRepsilon1 and GluRepsilon2 subunits.
Article: Superoxide and Nitric Oxide Involvement in Enhancing of N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor-Mediated Central Sensitization in the Chronic Post-ischemia Pain Model.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in persistent pain, including neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Since the data suggest that ROS are involved in central sensitization, the present study examines the levels of activated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the dorsal horn after an exogenous supply of three antioxidants in rats with chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP). This serves as an animal model of complex regional pain syndrome type-I induced by hindpaw ischemia/reperfusion injury. The application of tight-fitting O-rings for a period of three hours produced CPIP in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Allopurinol 4 mg/kg, allopurinol 40 mg/kg, superoxide dismutase (SOD) 4,000 U/kg, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 10 mg/kg and SOD 4,000 U/kg plus L-NAME 10 mg/kg were administered intraperitoneally just after O-ring application and on the first and second days after reperfusion. Mechanical allodynia was measured, and activation of the NMDA receptor subunit 1 (pNR1) of the lumbar spinal cord (L4-L6) was analyzed by the Western blot three days after reperfusion. Allopurinol reduced mechanical allodynia and attenuated the enhancement of spinal pNR1 expression in CPIP rats. SOD and L-NAME also blocked spinal pNR1 in accordance with the reduced mechanical allodynia in rats with CPIP. The present data suggest the contribution of superoxide, produced via xanthine oxidase, and the participation of superoxide and nitric oxide as a precursor of peroxynitrite in NMDA mediated central sensitization. Finally, the findings support a therapeutic potential for the manipulation of superoxide and nitric oxide in ischemia/reperfusion related pain conditions.The Korean journal of pain 03/2010; 23(1):1-10.
Article: Rapid S-nitrosylation of actin by NO-generating donors and in inflammatory pain model mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: S-Nitrosylation, the reversible post-translational modification of reactive cysteine residues in proteins, has emerged as an important mechanism by which NO acts as a signaling molecule. We recently demonstrated that actin is a major S-nitrosylated protein in the spinal cord and suggested that NO directly attenuates dopamine release from PC12 cells by causing the breakdown of F-actin. However, the occurrence of S-nitrosylation of actin remained unclarified in animal pain model. Kinetic analysis of S-nitrosylation of actin in the present study was made by using NO-generating donors. The biotin-switch assay and purification on streptavidin-agarose were employed for identification of S-nitrosylated actin. Dopamine release from PC12 cells was markedly attenuated by NOR1 (t1/2 = 1.8 min) and much less by NOR3 (t1/2 = 30 min), but not by S-nitroso-glutathione, an endogenous NO donor. A membrane-permeable cGMP analogue could not substitute for NOR1 as a suppressor nor could inhibitors of soluble guanylate cyclase and cGMP-dependent protein kinase attenuate the suppression. S-Nitrosylated actin was detected by the biotin-switch assay at 5 min after the addition of NOR1. Consistent with the kinetic analysis, actin in the spinal cord was rapidly and maximally S-nitrosylated in an inflammatory pain model at 5 min after the injection of 2% formalin into the hind paws. In vivo patch-clamp recordings of the spinal dorsal horn, NOR3 showed an inhibitory action on inhibitory synaptic transmission in interneurons of the substantia gelatinosa. The present study demonstrates that rapid S-nitrosylation of actin occurred in vitro in the presence of exogenous NO-generating donors and in vivo in inflammatory pain model mice. Our data suggest that, in addition to the well-known cGMP-dependent protein kinase pathway, S-nitrosylation is involved in pain transmission via disinhibition of inhibitory neurons.Molecular Pain 12/2011; 7:101. · 3.53 Impact Factor