Oxidative stress parameters in unmedicated and treated bipolar subjects during initial manic episode: a possible role for lithium antioxidant effects.
ABSTRACT Studies have proposed the involvement of oxidative stress and neuronal energy dysfunctions in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). This study evaluates plasma levels of the oxidative/energy metabolism markers, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) during initial episodes of mania compared to controls in 75 subjects. Two groups of manic subjects (unmedicated n=30, and lithium-treated n=15) were age/gender matched with healthy controls (n=30). TBARS and antioxidant enzymes activity (SOD and CAT) were increased in unmedicated manic patients compared to controls. Conversely, plasma NSE levels were lower during mania than in the controls. In contrast, acute treatment with lithium showed a significant reduction in both SOD/CAT ratio and TBARS levels. These results suggest that initial manic episodes are associated with both increased oxidative stress parameters and activated antioxidant defenses, which may be related to dysfunctions on energy metabolism and neuroplasticity pathways. Antioxidant effects using lithium in mania were shown, and further studies are necessary to evaluate the potential role of these effects in the pathophysiology and therapeutics of BD.
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ABSTRACT: Cognitive deficits are common in people who have received cranial irradiation and have a serious impact on daily functioning and quality of life. The benefit of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of cognitive deficits in this population is unclear. To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing or ameliorating cognitive deficits in adult patients treated with cranial irradiation. In August 2014. we searched the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO and checked the reference lists of included studies. We also searched for ongoing trials via ClinicalTrials.gov, the Physicians Data Query and the Meta Register of Controlled Trials. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions in cranial irradiated adults, with objective cognitive functioning as a primary or secondary outcome measure. Two review authors (JD, KZ) independently extracted data from selected studies and carried out a 'Risk of bias' assessment. Cognitive function, fatigue and mood outcomes were reported. No data were pooled. Sixteen studies were identified for possible inclusion in the review, six of which were included. Three studies investigated prevention and three studies investigated amelioration. Due to differences between studies in the interventions being evaluated, a meta-analysis was not possible. Two studies investigated a pharmacological intervention for the prevention of cognitive deficits; memantine compared with placebo, and d-threo-methylphenidate HCL compared with placebo. In the first study the primary cognitive outcome of memory at six months did not reach significance, but there was significant improvement in overall cognitive function compared to placebo, with similar adverse events across groups. The second study found no statistically significant difference between arms, with few adverse events. The third study investigated a rehabilitation program for the prevention of cognitive deficits but did not carry out a statistical comparison of cognitive performance between groups.Three studies investigated the use of a pharmacological intervention for the treatment of cognitive deficits; methylphenidate compared with modafinil, two different doses of modafinil, and donepezil compared with placebo. The first study found improvements in cognitive function in both the methylphenidate and modafinil arms; few adverse events were reported. The second study combined treatment arms and found improvements across all cognitive tests, however, a number of adverse events were reported. Both studies were limited by a small sample size. The third study did not find an improvement in the primary cognitive outcome of overall performance, but did find improvement in an individual test of memory, compared to placebo; adverse events were not reported. No non-pharmacological studies for the amelioration of cognitive deficits were eligible. There were a number of limitations across studies but few without high risks of bias. There is supportive evidence that memantine may help prevent cognitive deficits for adults with brain metastases receiving cranial irradiation. There is supportive evidence that donepezil may have a role in treating cognitive deficits in adults with primary or metastatic brain tumours who have been treated with cranial irradiation. Patient withdrawal affected the statistical power of both studies. Further research that tries to minimise the withdrawal of consent, and subsequently reduce the requirement for imputation procedures, may offer a higher quality of evidence.There is no strong evidence to support any non-pharmacological interventions (medical or cognitive/behavioural) in the prevention or amelioration of cognitive deficits. Non-randomised studies appear promising but are as yet to be conclusive via translation into high quality evidence. Further research is required.Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 12/2014; 12(12):CD011335. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD011335.pub2 · 5.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Clozapine and lithium increase neurosteroids in rodents, and both drugs demonstrate antisuicidal actions. We therefore hypothesized that neurosteroid levels may be reduced in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who completed suicide. Aims: To investigate neurosteroid levels in the parietal cortex and posterior cingulate in schizophrenia and bipolar patients who died by suicide, and compare them with patients with these disorders who died of other causes. Method: Neurosteroid levels were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the parietal cortex and posterior cingulate. Mann-Whitney analyses were conducted in exploratory post hoc analyses to investigate neurosteroids as possible biomarker candidates for suicide. Results: The study showed that pregnenolone was significantly decreased in the parietal cortex in the combined group of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who died by suicide (n = 13) compared with patients with these disorders who died of other causes (n = 17, p = .02). Pregnenolone levels were also lower in the parietal cortex in the individual group of schizophrenia patients who died by suicide (n = 4) compared with schizophrenia patients who died of other causes (n = 11) p = .04). Conclusion: Pregnenolone alterations may be relevant to the neurobiology of suicide in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.Crisis The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention 11/2014; 1(-1):1-9. DOI:10.1027/0227-5910/a000280 · 1.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative and nitrosative stress are implicated in the pathogenesis of uni- and bipolar disorder. Herein we primarily sought to characterize markers of oxidative/nitrosative stress during euthymia in adults with bipolar disorder (BD). Oxidative markers were further evaluated in this BD sample in synopsis with excess overweight or obesity and/or comorbid metabolic syndrome (MetS). Peripheral markers of oxidative stress [i.e. thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, (TBARS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and carbonyl proteins] and antioxidant markers [e.g. total antioxidative capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST)] were obtained in a cohort of euthymic adults with BD (N=113) and compared to healthy controls (CG) (N=78). Additionally, anthropometric measures included the body mass index (BMI) [kg/m(2)], waist and hip circumference [cm], waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR), waist to height ratio (WtHR) as well as the IDF-defined MetS. The major finding was a significantly decreased TAC in BD compared to the CG (p<0.01; BD: M 1.18, SD 0.47; CG: M 1.39, SD 0.49). MDA was significantly and TBARS by trend higher in the CG compared to the euthymic bipolar test persons (MDA: p<0.01, BD: M 0.70, SD 0.18; CG: M 0.81, SD 0.25; TBARS: p<0.1, BD: M 0.78, SD 0.28; CG: M 0.76, SD 0.30). The antioxidative enzyme GST was significantly elevated in both patients and controls (BD: M 298.24, SD 133.02; CG: M 307.27 SD 118.18). Subgroup analysis revealed that the CG with concurrent MetS and obesity had significantly elevated TAC when compared to CG without concurrent MetS (p<0.05, no MetS: M 1.33, SD 0.50; MetS: M 1.67, SD 0.32), as well as persons with BD with or without current MetS (no MetS: M 1.18, SD 0.44; MetS: M 1.15, SD 0.49). Significant correlations between GST and anthropometric variables were found in male study participants. Multivariate analysis indicated a significant gender effect concerning TBARS values in all patients and CG (p<0.01, females: M 0.73, SD 0.29; males: M 0.83, SD 0.28). Euthymic bipolar adults exhibit peripheral evidence of a disturbed biosignature of oxidative stress and antioxidative defense. Male test persons showed significantly higher peripheral markers of oxidative stress than women- female sex may exert protective effects. Furthermore, the biosignature of oxidative stress obtained herein was more pronounced in males with concurrent metabolic disorders. Our results further extend knowledge by introducing the moderating influence of gender and obesity on oxidative stress and BD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Affective Disorders 10/2014; 172C:367-374. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.10.014 · 3.71 Impact Factor