Plasma levels and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A in human localized prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT Although the impact of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is clearly established in advanced prostate cancer (PCa), its role in localized PCa remains to be determined. The aim of our study was to analyse the plasma levels of VEGF-A and the expression of VEGF-A in prostatic tissue in a population of patients with localized PCa. We measured the preoperative plasma levels of VEGF-A in 100 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) for clinically-localized PCa. After intervention, we determined the expression of VEGF-A in all RP specimens using immunohistochemistry. We found no association between plasma levels of VEGF-A and the established prognostic factors of PCa. Moreover, there was no association between plasma levels of VEGF-A and the expression of VEGF-A in prostatic tissue. On the contrary, there was a strong correlation between the expression of VEGF-A in PCa tissue and the Gleason score of cancer: the expression of VEGF-A was significantly higher in patients with a high Gleason score on RP specimen (p=0.01). Our results suggest that the expression of VEGF may have a prognostic impact in clinically-localized PCa.
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) produce the stromal reaction in pancreatic cancer (PC), and their interaction with cancer cells facilitates cancer progression. This study investigated the role of human PSCs (hPSCs) in the metastatic process and tumor angiogenesis using both in vivo (orthotopic model) and in vitro (cultured PSC and PC cells) approaches. A sex mismatch study (injection of male hPSCs plus female PC cells into the pancreas of female mice) was conducted to determine whether hPSCs accompany cancer cells to metastatic sites. Metastatic nodules were examined by fluorescent in situ hybridization for the presence of the Y chromosome. Angiogenesis was assessed by i) immunostaining tumors for CD31, an endothelial cell marker; and ii) quantifying human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1) tube formation in vitro on exposure to conditioned media from hPSCs. Transendothelial migration was assessed in vitro by examining the movement of fluorescently labeled hPSCs through an endothelial cell monolayer. Human PSCs i) were found in multiple metastatic sites in each mouse injected with male hPSCs plus female PC cells; ii) increased CD31 expression in primary tumors from mice injected with MiaPaCa-2 and hPSCs and stimulated tube formation by HMEC-1 in vitro; and iii) exhibited transendothelial migration that was stimulated by cancer cells. Human PSCs accompany cancer cells to metastatic sites, stimulate angiogenesis, and are able to intravasate/extravasate to and from blood vessels.American Journal Of Pathology 10/2010; 177(5):2585-96. · 4.89 Impact Factor