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Primary prevention of type 1A diabetes: are we there yet?

Pediatric Diabetes (Impact Factor: 2.13). 07/2007; 8(3):115-6. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-5448.2007.00256.x
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    ABSTRACT: This randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial tested whether oral insulin administration could delay or prevent type 1 diabetes in nondiabetic relatives at risk for diabetes. We screened 103,391 first- and second-degree relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes and analyzed 97,273 samples for islet cell antibodies. A total of 3,483 were antibody positive; 2,523 underwent genetic, immunological, and metabolic staging to quantify risk of developing diabetes; 388 had a 5-year risk projection of 26-50%; and 372 (median age 10.25 years) were randomly assigned to oral insulin (7.5 mg/day) or placebo. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed every 6 months. The median follow-up was 4.3 years, and the primary end point was diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes was diagnosed in 44 oral insulin and 53 placebo subjects. Annualized rate of diabetes was similar in both groups: 6.4% with oral insulin and 8.2% with placebo (hazard ratio 0.764, P = 0.189). In a hypothesis-generating analysis of a subgroup with insulin autoantibody (IAA) levels confirmed (on two occasions) > or =80 nU/ml (n = 263), there was the suggestion of benefit: annualized diabetes rate 6.2% with oral insulin and 10.4% with placebo (0.566, P = 0.015). It is possible to identify individuals at high risk for type 1 diabetes and to enroll them in a large, multisite, randomized, controlled clinical trial. However, oral insulin did not delay or prevent type 1 diabetes. Further studies are needed to explore the potential role of oral insulin in delaying diabetes in relatives similar to those in the subgroup with higher IAA levels.
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    ABSTRACT: Type 1A diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disorder the risk of which is increased by specific HLA DR/DQ alleles [e.g., DRB1*03-DQB1*0201 (DR3) or DRB1*04-DQB1*0302 (DR4)]. The genotype associated with the highest risk for T1D is the DR3/4-DQ8 (DQ8 is DQA1*0301, DQB1*0302) heterozygous genotype. We determined HLA-DR and -DQ genotypes at birth and analyzed DR3/4-DQ8 siblings of patients with T1D for identical-by-descent HLA haplotype sharing (the number of haplotypes inherited in common between siblings). The children were clinically followed with prospective measurement of anti-islet autoimmunity and for progression to T1D. Risk for islet autoimmunity dramatically increased in DR3/4-DQ8 siblings who shared both HLA haplotypes with their diabetic proband sibling (63% by age 7, and 85% by age 15) compared with siblings who did not share both HLA haplotypes with their diabetic proband sibling (20% by age 15, P < 0.01). 55% sharing both HLA haplotypes developed diabetes by age 12 versus 5% sharing zero or one haplotype (P = 0.03). Despite sharing both HLA haplotypes with their proband, siblings without the HLA DR3/4-DQ8 genotype had only a 25% risk for T1D by age 12. The risk for T1D in the DR3/4-DQ8 siblings sharing both HLA haplotypes with their proband is remarkable for a complex genetic disorder and provides evidence that T1D is inherited with HLA-DR/DQ alleles and additional MHC-linked genes both determining major risk. A subset of siblings at extremely high risk for T1D can now be identified at birth for trials to prevent islet autoimmunity.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2006; 103(38):14074-9. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0606349103 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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