Characterization of the physiological turnover of native and inactivated cytochromes P450 3A in cultured rat hepatocytes: A role for the cytosolic AAA ATPase p97?

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States
Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.01). 08/2007; 46(26):7793-803. DOI: 10.1021/bi700340n
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mammalian hepatic cytochromes P450 (P450s) are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored hemoproteins engaged in the metabolism of numerous xeno- and endobiotics. P450s exhibit widely ranging half-lives, utilizing both autophagic-lysosomal (ALD) and ubiquitin-dependent 26S proteasomal (UPD) degradation pathways. Although suicidally inactivated hepatic CYPs 3A and "native" CYP3A4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are degraded via UPD, the turnover of native hepatic CYPs 3A in their physiological milieu has not been elucidated. Herein, we characterize the degradation of native, dexamethasone-inducible CYPs 3A in cultured primary rat hepatocytes, using proteasomal (MG-132 and MG-262) and ALD [NH4Cl and 3-methyladenine (3-MA)] inhibitors to examine their specific degradation route. Pulse-chase with immunoprecipitation analyses revealed a basal 52% 35S-CYP3A loss over 6 h, which was stabilized by both proteasomal inhibitors. By contrast, no corresponding CYP3A stabilization was detected with either ALD inhibitor NH4Cl or 3-MA. Furthermore, MG-262-induced CYP3A stabilization was associated with its polyubiquitylation, thereby verifying that native CYPs 3A were also degraded via UPD. To identify the specific participants in this process, cellular proteins were cross-linked in situ with paraformaldehyde (PFA) in cultured hepatocytes. Immunoblotting analyses of CYP3A immunoprecipitates after PFA-cross-linking revealed the presence of p97, a cytosolic AAA ATPase instrumental in the extraction and delivery of ubiquitylated ER proteins for proteasomal degradation. Such native CYP3A-p97 interactions were greatly magnified after CYP3A suicidal inactivation (which accelerates UPD), and/or proteasomal inhibition, and were confirmed by proteomic and confocal immunofluorescence microscopic analyses. These findings clearly reveal that native CYPs 3A undergo UPD and implicate a role for p97 in this process.

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Available from: Colleen Hefner, Aug 11, 2015
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    • "Ubiquitinated cellular protein was immunoblotted as described previously (Correia et al., 2005; Faouzi et al., 2007). CYP2B, CYP3A, TDO, eIF2␣/eIF2␣P, actin, Grp94, and Grp78/BiP were subjected to immunoblotting analyses as detailed elsewhere (Han et al., 2005b; Liao et al., 2007; Acharya et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: We have reported previously that the hepatic heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI)-eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2 alpha) kinase is activated in acute heme-deficient states, resulting in translational shut-off of global hepatic protein synthesis, including phenobarbital (PB)-mediated induction of CYP2B enzymes in rats. These findings revealed that heme regulates hepatic CYP2B synthesis at the translational level via HRI. As a proof of concept, we have now employed a genetic HRI-knockout (KO) mouse hepatocyte model. In HRI-KO hepatocytes, PB-mediated CYP2B protein induction is no longer regulated by hepatic heme availability and proceeds undeterred even after acute hepatic heme depletion. It is noteworthy that genetic ablation of HRI led to a small albeit significant elevation of basal hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as revealed by the activation of ER stress-inducible RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER-integral (PERK) eIF2 alpha-kinase, and induction of hepatic protein ubiquitination and ER chaperones Grp78 and Grp94. Such ER stress was further augmented after PB-mediated hepatic protein induction. These findings suggest that HRI normally modulates the basal hepatic ER stress tone. Furthermore, because HRI exists in both human and rat liver in its heme-sensitive form and is inducible by cytochrome P450 inducers such as PB, these findings are clinically relevant to acute heme-deficient states, such as the acute hepatic porphyrias. Activation of this exquisitely sensitive heme sensor would normally protect cells by safeguarding cellular energy and nutrients during acute heme deficiency. However, similar HRI activation in genetically predisposed persons could lead to global translational arrest of physiologically relevant enzymes and proteins, resulting in the severe and often fatal clinical symptoms of the acute hepatic porphyrias.
    Molecular pharmacology 04/2010; 77(4):575-92. DOI:10.1124/mol.109.061259 · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    • "These results confirm MG132-induced functional inhibition of the 26S proteasome, and indicate that at the lower concentrations, MG132 indeed stabilizes both the parent (55 kDa) and ubiquitinated (HMM) CYP3A proteins. Similar suppression was also observed with CYP3A4/ CYP3A5 in cultured human hepatocytes treated with MG262 (Ͼ100 ␮M), another proteasomal inhibitor that also stabilizes CYP3A (Faouzi et al., 2007) (Fig. 2). Fig. 2 "
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatic cytochromes P450 3A (P450s 3A) are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-proteins, responsible for xenobiotic metabolism. They are degraded by the ubiquitin-dependent 26S proteasome. Consistent with this, we have shown that proteasomal inhibitors N-benzoyloxycarbonyl (Z)-Leu-Leu-leucinal (MG132) and N-benzoyloxycarbonyl-Leu-Leu-Leu-B(OH)(2) (MG262) stabilize CYP3A proteins. However, MG132 has been reported to suppress P450s 3A as a result of impaired nuclear factor-kappaB activation and consequently reduced CYP3A protein stability. Because the MG132 concentration used in those studies was 10-fold higher than that required for CYP3A stabilization, we examined the effect of MG132 (0-300 microM) concentration-dependent proteasomal inhibition on CYP3A turnover in cultured primary rat hepatocytes. We found a biphasic MG132 concentration effect on CYP3A turnover: Stabilization at 5 to 10 muM with marked suppression at >100 microM. Proteasomal inhibitors reportedly induce ER stress, heat shock, and apoptotic response. At these high MG132 concentrations, such CYP3A suppression could be due to ER stress induction, so we monitored the activity of PERK [PKR (RNA-dependent protein kinase)-like ER kinase (EIF2AK3)], the ER stress-activated eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) kinase. Indeed, we found a marked (approximately 4-fold) MG132 concentration-dependent PERK autophosphorylation, along with an 8-fold increase in eIF2alpha-phosphorylation. In parallel, MG132 also activated GCN2 [general control nonderepressible-2 (EIF2AK4)] eIF2alpha kinase in a concentration-dependent manner, but not the heme-regulated inhibitor eIF2alpha kinase [(EIF2AK1)]. Pulse-chase, immunoprecipitation/immunoblotting analyses documented the consequently dramatic translational shutoff of total hepatic protein, including but not limited to CYP3A and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase protein syntheses. These findings reveal that at high concentrations, MG132 is indeed cytotoxic and can suppress CYP3A synthesis, a result confirmed by confocal immunofluorescence analyses of MG132-treated hepatocytes.
    Molecular pharmacology 06/2009; 76(3):503-15. DOI:10.1124/mol.109.056002 · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    • "This is in apparent opposition to the results we present here. The model we used, of primary rat hepatocytes cultured with Matrigel , is accepted as the best cell model to study P450 regulation in rat liver, and Dex-treated hepatocytes have been used to show the proteasome-dependent degradation of native and inhibitor-modified CYP3As (Faouzi et al., 2007). The reported down-regulation of CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 mRNAs in vivo could reflect direct effects of LPS and/or additive or synergistic effects of cytokines in vivo. "
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    ABSTRACT: Whereas many cytochrome P450 enzymes are transcriptionally suppressed by inflammatory stimuli, down-regulation of CYP2B protein by the inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1beta is nitric oxide (NO)-dependent and occurs via polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Here, we used iTRAQ proteomic analysis to search for other proteins that are potentially down-regulated by cellular NO in cultured rat hepatocytes, and we identified CYP3A1 as one such protein. Therefore, we examined whether CYP3A proteins, like CYP2B, undergo NO- and proteasome-dependent degradation in response to cytokine treatment of rat hepatocytes. In cultured rat hepatocytes treated with phenobarbital, IL-1beta stimulation failed to down-regulate CYP3A1 mRNA within 24 h of treatment, whereas CYP3A protein was down-regulated to 40% of control within 6 h, showing the post-transcriptional down-regulation of CYP3A1 protein. The down-regulation of CYP3A after 9 h of stimulation by IL-1beta was attenuated by inhibitors of NO synthase (NOS) and of the proteasome, showing NO- and proteasome-dependent down-regulation at earlier time points. However, the down-regulation of CYP3A evoked by IL-1beta measured 24 h after stimulation was not affected by the inhibition of NOS or by proteasomal inhibitors, showing that CYP3A1 down-regulation at later time points is NO- and proteasome-independent. IL-6, which did not evoke NO production nor affect CYP3A1 mRNA within 24 h, produced a delayed proteasome-independent down-regulation as well. Taken together, these observations show a novel dual mode of post-transcriptional CYP3A down-regulation by cytokines: NO- and proteasome-dependent at earlier time points and NO- and proteasome-independent at later times.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 02/2009; 37(4):865-72. DOI:10.1124/dmd.108.026187 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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