Computerized stroop test to assess selective attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Universidade São Francisco, Brazil.
The Spanish Journal of Psychology (Impact Factor: 0.74). 05/2007; 10(1):33-40. DOI: 10.1017/S1138741600006296
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Research shows abnormal function of the pre-frontal cortex in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This cortex is involved in the control of executive functions related to planning and execution of goal-oriented strategies, working memory, inhibitions, cognitive flexibility, and selective attention. Selective attention involves focus on the target stimulus, ignoring competing distractions. The Stroop Test (Stroop, 1935) is usually used to evaluate selective attention. This study investigated whether children with ADHD could exhibit modified performance in the Stroop Test. Using a computerized version of this test (Capovilla, Montiel, Macedo, & Charin, 2005), the study compared the reaction times (RTs) of 62 Brazilian children, between 8 and 12 years of age, 31 of whom were diagnosed with ADHD and sent to psychiatric clinics, and 31 without ADHD studying in regular schools. All children with ADHD satisfied the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR and were evaluated with the Conners Abbreviated Questionnaire (Goyette, Conners, & Ulrich, 1978), completed by parents and teachers. The results revealed that children with ADHD exhibit greater interference in RT than children without ADHD. This corroborated the hypothesis that children with ADHD exhibit a deficit in selective attention, consisting in augmented RTs, as measured by the Computerized Stroop Test.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The reading achievement of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has scarcely been explored in research conducted in the Spanish language and when it has, the results have been contradictory. The focus of the present research is to analyze participants' reading competency and metacognitive strategies as they carry out reading comprehension tasks. The sample was comprised of 187 Argentine schoolchildren aged 9 to 13 years old. 94 constituted the control group and the clinical group consisted of 93 schoolchildren diagnosed with ADHD. The metacognitive assessment was made up of two metacognitive tests, the Reading Awareness Scale (ESCOLA; acronym in Spanish) and a Spanish adaptation of Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI), and one test of reading comprehension, the Evaluation of Reading Processes for Secondary Education Students (PROLEC-SE; acronym in Spanish). Students with ADHD had lower achievement on tests o reading comprehension compared to the control group. Nevertheless, our results suggest their difficulties did not stem from readin comprehension problems, but rather from alterations in their Executive Functions, because when subjects' reading comprehensio was equalized, students with ADHD still exhibited a lower level of Metacognition, particularly when it came to planning.
    The Spanish Journal of Psychology 05/2011; 14(1):62-73. · 0.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Many adult ADHD patients with a convincing history of real-life executive deficits perform entirely within normal limits or with minimally impaired performance in classical executive tests. The authors assessed a group of high cognitive functioning adult ADHD participants on "ecological" and "highly demanding" executive tasks. Method: A total of 117 adult ADHD participants were classified as showing either a high-functioning (Hi-ADHD) or a low-functioning (Lo-ADHD) neuropsychological profile based on standard assessment. Their performance was compared with healthy controls (n = 21) on an ecological task of executive function (the hotel task) and computerized tasks of high cognitive demand. Results: Lo-ADHD significantly differed from controls on multiple standard neuropsychological variables as well as on the experimental tasks. Hi-ADHD and healthy controls did not differ significantly on any of the standard neuropsychological variables, but a significant difference was found between the groups on measures of the experimental tasks. Conclusion: Real-life executive dysfunction of patients with ADHD who perform within normal range on standard assessment can be detected with the use of more ecological and highly demanding tasks. (J. of Att. Dis. 2007; XX(X) 1-XX).
    Journal of Attention Disorders 07/2012; · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate possible differences in peripheral levels of chemokines, BDNF and oxidative markers between patients with Schizophrenia (SZ) and matched healthy controls, and investigate the correlation of these biomarkers with cognitive performance. Thirty individuals with SZ and 27 healthy controls were included and the following plasmatic biomarkers' levels were determined according to manufacturers' instructions: BDNF, TBARS, protein carbonyl content (PCC) and the chemokines CXCL-10/IP-10, CXCL-8/IL-8, CCL-11, CCL-24/Eotaxin-2, CCL-2/MCP-1, CCL-3/MIP-1. Selected neuropsychological tasks were administered to assess verbal learning (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test), verbal fluency (FAS test), working memory (Visual Working Memory Task, Keep Track Task, Letter Memory Task), set shifting (Plus-minus task, Number-letter task), inhibition (Computerized Stroop Task, Semantic Generation Task) and complex executive function tasks (Tower of London and the shortened version of the WCST-64). Compared with the healthy control group, individuals with SZ presented significantly higher levels of BDNF and the chemokine CCL-11, and lower levels of TBARS and the chemokine CXCL-10/IP-10. When we examined only the SZ group, BDNF levels were positively correlated with semantic generation tasks. Working memory ability was negatively correlated with PCC. Regarding chemokines, CCL-11 was negatively correlated to performance in working memory test, and positively correlated with cognitive flexibility task. CXCL-8/IL-8 was positively correlated with verbal fluency. CCL-24/Eotaxin-2 was positively correlated with semantic generation ability and letter memory task. Our results indicate that cognitive performance in SZ is associated with mediators of neuroplasticity that can be measured peripherally.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 06/2013; · 4.09 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 22, 2014