Behavioral Risks for West Nile Virus Disease, Northern Colorado, 2003

Larimer County Department of Health and Environment, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA.
Emerging infectious diseases (Impact Factor: 7.33). 04/2007; 13(3):419-25. DOI: 10.3201/eid1303.060941
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In 2003, residents in 2 adjacent cities in northern Colorado (Loveland and Fort Collins) had severe outbreaks of human West Nile virus (WNV) disease. Unexpectedly, age-adjusted neuroinvasive disease rates were higher in Loveland (38.6 vs. 15.9 per 100,000), which had a more extensive mosquito control program and fewer mosquitoes. A survey was conducted to assess differences in personal protection and risk practices by each city's residents. During May and June 2004, a random-digit dial telephone survey was conducted among adults to assess personal protection behavioral practices used to prevent WNV infection during the 2003 outbreak. After we adjusted for identified risk factors, Loveland residents were 39% more likely to report seldom or never using N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), and approximately 30% were more likely to report being outdoors during prime mosquito-biting hours than Fort Collins residents. Personal protective practices may directly influence rates of WNV infection and remain important even when comprehensive community mosquito control measures are implemented.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe use of Fort Collins, Colorado, and nearby areas by bats in 2001–2005, and link patterns in bat ecology with concurrent public health surveillance for rabies. Our analyses are based on evaluation of summary statistics, and information-theoretic support for results of simple logistic regression. Based on captures in mist nets, the city bat fauna differed from that of the adjacent mountains, and was dominated by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Species, age, and sex composition of bats submitted for rabies testing locally and along the urbanizing Front Range Corridor were similar to those of the mist-net captures and reflected the annual cycle of reproduction and activity of big brown bats. Few submissions occurred November- March, when these bats hibernated elsewhere. In summer females roosted in buildings in colonies and dominated health samples; fledging of young corresponded to a summer peak in health submissions with no increase in rabies prevalence. Roosting ecology of big brown bats in buildings was similar to that reported for natural sites, including colony size, roost-switching behavior, fidelity to roosts in a small area, and attributes important for roost selection. Attrition in roosts occurred from structural modifications of buildings to exclude colonies by citizens, but without major effects on long-term bat reproduction or survival. Bats foraged in areas set aside for nature conservation. A pattern of lower diversity in urban bat communities with dominance by big brown bats may occur widely in the USA, and is consistent with national public health records for rabies surveillance. KeywordsBats–Chiroptera–Disease–Public health–Rabies–Big brown bats
    Urban Ecosystems 11/2011; 14(4):665-697. DOI:10.1007/s11252-011-0182-7 · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Various species of mosquitoes are recognized as vectors of a number of human infections in the tropics. One thousand (490 males, 510 females) self-selected students of a tertiary institution (Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye) in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria were interviewed between November 2007 and March 2008 to determine their protective measures against mosquitoes and their knowledge of the vectorial role of mosquitoes. Temporary water bodies around the halls of residence of the students were also examined for mosquito larvae. 92.4% (924/1000) of the students used nettings on their windows and /or doors and use of nettings on both doors and windows was the statistically commonest practice (x = 41.31, P < 0.001). Only 9.2% 2 (85/924) of the netting users also used insecticide-treated bed nets. Most of the students answered having had, at least, one mosquito bite 1-2 weeks earlier (x = 62.45, P < 0.001). 26.3% (263/1000) of the respondents had fever 2 in the last 1-8 week earlier. 88.4% (884/1000) of the respondents answered correctly that mosquitoes are vectors of the etiological agents of malaria, elephantiasis and yellow fever. 89.8% (132/147) of the halls of residence of the respondents had mosquito larvae in their immediate vicinity. The study shows the need to complimen t personal protective measures with regular and adequate environmental sanitation in the bid to successfull y check human-mosquito contact among students in the study area.
  • Source
Show more


Available from