Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg illness.
Division of Immunology/Allergy/Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0369, USA.Journal of Medical Biography 06/2007; 15(2):104-10. DOI: 10.1258/j.jmb.2007.06-14
When Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address, he was weak and dizzy; his face had a ghastly colour. That evening on the train to Washington, DC, he was febrile and weak, and suffered severe headaches. The symptoms continued; back pains developed. On the fourth day of the illness, a widespread scarlet rash appeared that soon became vesicular. By the tenth day, the lesions itched and peeled. The illness lasted three weeks. The final diagnosis, a touch of varioloid, was an old name for smallpox that was later used in the 20th century to denote mild smallpox in a partially immune individual. It was unclear whether Lincoln had been immunized against smallpox. Indeed, this review suggests that Lincoln had unmodified smallpox and that Lincoln's physicians tried to reassure the public that Lincoln was not seriously ill. Indeed, the successful conclusion of the Civil War and reunification of the country were dependent upon Lincoln's presidency.
- The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 06/2011; 30(10):821. DOI:10.1097/INF.0b013e318227759a · 2.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article critically reviews the literature on the history of biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrimes. The first serious effort to review this entire history, made in 1969, had numerous limitations. In recent decades, several authors have filled many of the gaps in our understanding of the past use of biological agents (including both pathogens and toxins), making it possible to reconstruct that history with greater fidelity than previously possible. Nevertheless, there are numerous remaining gaps, and closer inspection indicates that some supposed uses of biological weapons never took place or are poorly substantiated. Topics requiring additional research are identified.07/2015; 13(4). DOI:10.1089/hs.2014.0092
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