Cryptosporidiosis Decline after Regulation, England and Wales, 1989–2005

School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
Emerging infectious diseases (Impact Factor: 6.75). 05/2007; 13(4):623-5. DOI: 10.3201/eid1304.060890
Source: PubMed


Since new drinking water regulations were implemented in England and Wales in 2000, cryptosporidiosis has been significantly reduced in the first half of the year but not in the second. We estimate an annual reduction in disease of 905 reported cases and approximately 6,700 total cases.

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Available from: Iain Lake, Oct 09, 2015
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    • "In fact the latter outbreak has also influenced the EU legislation for drinking water, which had incorporated the control of Cryptosporidium in specific circumstances. These interventions lead to a significant decline in cryptosporidiosis [81]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The safety of drinking water is evaluated by the results obtained from faecal indicators during the stipulated controls fixed by the legislation. However, drinking-water related illness outbreaks are still occurring worldwide. The failures that lead to these outbreaks are relatively common and typically involve preceding heavy rain and inadequate disinfection processes. The role that classical faecal indicators have played in the protection of public health is reviewed and the turning points expected for the future explored. The legislation for protecting the quality of drinking water in Europe is under revision, and the planned modifications include an update of current indicators and methods as well as the introduction of Water Safety Plans (WSPs), in line with WHO recommendations. The principles of the WSP approach and the advances signified by the introduction of these preventive measures in the future improvement of drinking water quality are presented. The expected impact that climate change will have in the quality of drinking water is also critically evaluated.
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12/2010; 7(12):4179-202. DOI:10.3390/ijerph7124179 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    • "The links between cryptosporidiosis and drinking water are noteworthy as this period covers the new drinking water regulations to control Cryptosporidium implemented in 2000 [23]. Since this time a reduction in cryptosporidiosis has been reported, especially the reduction in the size of the spring peak nationally [24]. Consequently, although the regulations appear to have had success in reducing illness, drinking water remains a significant risk factor for cryptosporidiosis in England and Wales. "
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the first case-control study to investigate the role of wider environmental and socioeconomic factors upon human cryptosporidiosis. Using GIS the detailed locations of 3368 laboratory-confirmed cases were compared to the locations of an equal number of controls. All cases were genotyped enabling Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum to be examined separately. When all cryptosporidiosis cases were analyzed, several location variables were strongly associated with illness: areas with many higher socioeconomic status individuals, many individuals aged less than 4 years, areas with a high estimate of Cryptosporidium applied to land from manure, and areas with poorer water treatment. For C. hominis cases, the strongly significant risk factors were areas with many higher socioeconomic status individuals, areas with many young children and urban areas. Socioeconomic status and areas with many individuals aged less then 4 years had a greater impact for infection with C. hominis than for C. parvum. Policy implications are discussed.
    European Journal of Epidemiology 02/2007; 22(11):805-11. DOI:10.1007/s10654-007-9179-1 · 5.34 Impact Factor
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