Calcium intake and the outcome of short-term weight management.
ABSTRACT Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that calcium intake is inversely related to weight gain. Calcium of dairy origin has been shown to be more effective in promoting weight loss. However, clinical studies yielded controversial results concerning the role of calcium intake in weight change. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the addition of calcium can affect the outcome of 3-week weight management (WM) with a hypocaloric diet characterized by a decreased calcium intake. Overweight/ obese women (n=67; BMI 32.2+/-4.1 kg/m(2); age 49.1+/-12.1 years) underwent a 4-week comprehensive WM program. WM included a 7 MJ/day diet resulting in a stable weight during the first week and a 4.5 MJ/day diet with mean daily calcium intake 350 mg during the second to fourth week. Participants were divided into three age- and BMI-matched groups who received placebo or calcium (500 mg/day). Calcium was administered either as carbonate or calcium of dairy origin (Lactoval). There was no significant difference in weight loss in response to WM between the placebo-treated and calcium-treated groups. However, addition of calcium to the diet resulted in a lower hunger score in the Eating Inventory as well as a decrease in plasma resistin levels. Body composition measured by bioimpedance demonstrated that added calcium leads to preservation of fat-free mass. Nevertheless, a greater loss of fat-free mass in the placebo group might be partly due to a greater loss of water.
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ABSTRACT: Background/Objectives:High calcium intakes enhance fat loss under restricted energy intake. Mechanisms explaining this may involve reduced dietary fat absorption, enhanced lipid utilization and (or) reductions in appetite. This study aimed to assess the impact of 2 weeks of calcium supplementation on substrate utilization during exercise and appetite sensations at rest.Subjects/Methods:Thirteen physically active males completed two 14-d supplemental periods, in a double-blind, randomized crossover design separated by a 4-week washout period. During supplementation, a test-drink was consumed daily containing 400 and 1400 mg of calcium during control (CON) and high-calcium (CAL) periods, respectively. Cycling-based exercise tests were conducted before and after each supplemental period to determine substrate utilization rates and circulating metabolic markers (non-esterified fatty acid, glycerol, glucose and lactate concentrations) across a range of exercise intensities. Visual analog scales were completed in the fasting, rested state to determine subjective appetite sensations.Results:No significant differences between supplements were observed in lipid or carbohydrate utilization rates, nor in circulating metabolic markers (both P>0.05). Maximum rates of lipid utilization were 0.47±0.05 and 0.44±0.05 g/min for CON and CAL, respectively, prior to supplementation and 0.44±0.05 and 0.42±0.05 g/min, respectively, post-supplementation (main effects of time, supplement and time x supplement interaction effect all P>0.05). Furthermore, no significant differences were detected in any subjective appetite sensations (all P>0.05).Conclusions:Two weeks of calcium supplementation does not influence substrate utilization during exercise in physically active males.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 19 March 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.41.European journal of clinical nutrition 03/2014; DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2014.41 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Overweight and obesity are growing health problems in the United States, with approximately one-third of adults being obese and more than one-third are overweight. Many overweight individuals turn to dietary and herbal supplements for weight loss, and millions of dollars are spent on these products. However, there are concerns about the safety and efficacy of many supplements. Supplements are believed to help weight loss by several mechanisms of action, including increasing energy expenditure, increasing satiety, increasing fat oxidation, blocking dietary fat absorption, modulating carbohydrate metabolism, increasing fat excretion, increasing water elimination, and enhancing mood. This topic is changing rapidly, and this review gives a perspective of the current state of the evidence on selected dietary and herbal supplements and combination products. Many supplements have not been studied in randomized controlled trials and require more research to determine efficacy. Nutrition and healthcare professionals need to discuss use of dietary supplements with patients and report any adverse events to the Food and Drug Administration. Additional regulations on production, sales, and marketing of these supplements would be needed.Topics in clinical nutrition 03/2010; 25(2):136–150. DOI:10.1097/TIN.0b013e3181dbb85e
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Obesity is a risk factor for other nontransmissible chronic diseases. It has been suggested calcium intake helps to control obesity, but there is no consensus about this. Objective: Analyze the studies published on this topic in order to highlight issues to be further explored in future studies. Methods: A literature review was conducted using the PUBMED, Science Direct, Scielo, Scopus, Medline and CAPES electronic scientific basis. Studies, which evaluated the effect of calcium ingestion in energy metabolism, body weight, and body composition, published from 2000 through 2011, were analyzed. Results and discussion: The results of most of the interventional studies selected suggest that calcium ingestion may favor the reduction of the anthropometric measures and improve body composition. The discrepancy in the results of the observational studies is probably due to methodological differences. It seems that the benefits are only detected when a low calcium habitual ingestion (≈ 700 mg/day or lower) is increased to about 1,200-1,300 mg/day. Conclusion: When assessing the effect of calcium derived from supplements, the investigators should test higher bioavailability compounds. If the calcium source is the dairy product, it is necessary that to consider and isolate the impact of other nutrients present in these foods. Longer term studies should be conducted to assess the effect of calcium on energy metabolism.Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 12/2012; 27(6):1758-1771. · 1.25 Impact Factor