Occurrence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Lake Maggiore (Italy and Switzerland).

European Commission-DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via E. Fermi 1, 21020 Ispra (Va), Italy.
Journal of Environmental Monitoring (Impact Factor: 2.09). 07/2007; 9(6):589-98. DOI: 10.1039/b700919d
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Samples of air (gas and particulate phases), bulk deposition, aquatic settling material and sediments were collected in Lake Maggiore (LM) in order to determine their content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Air (gas and particulate phases) concentrations were 0.5 pg m(-3), 80 pg m(-3), 13 pg m(-3) and 106 pg m(-3) for SigmaPCDD/Fs, SigmaPCBs, Sigma dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and SigmaPBDEs, respectively. Deposition fluxes ranged from 0.7 ng m(-2) d(-1) for SigmaPCDD/Fs to 32 ng m(-2) d(-1) for SigmaPCBs. Aquatic settling material presented concentrations of 0.4 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) for SigmaPCDD/Fs, 13 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaPCB, 3.4 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaDL-PCBs and 5.7 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaPBDEs. Mean sediment concentrations were 0.4 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaPCDD/Fs, 11 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaPCB, 3 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaDL-PCBs and 5.1 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaPBDEs. Similar PCDD/F and DL-PCB congener patterns in all the environmental compartments of LM point to an important, if not dominant, contribution of atmospheric deposition as source of these pollutants into LM. In contrast, PBDE congener distribution was not similar in the different environmental compartments. BDE 47 dominated air and settling material, while BDE 209 was the predominant congener in the bulk atmospheric deposition. Moreover, sediments showed two distinct PBDE congener profiles. Lower PBDE concentrated sediments were dominated by congeners 47 and 99, while BDE 209 dominated in higher PBDE concentrated samples. This suggests the influence of local sources as well as atmospheric input of PBDEs into LM.

1 Bookmark
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as flame retardants but they are of concern and are currently being phased-out because of their environmentally hazardous properties and their potential to cause adverse health effects. We analyzed PBDEs in Zurich, Switzerland, and applied a multi-media environmental fate model to back-calculate the rate of PBDE emission to air. PBDE concentrations in ambient air were measured in summer 2010 and winter 2011 in the city center of Zurich. Concentrations were higher in summer (sum PBDEs 118-591pgm(-3)) than in winter (sum PBDEs 17-151pgm(-3)), and are on the upper end of concentrations reported in literature for urban sites with no point sources of PBDEs. The emissions derived from our measurements (summer: 53-165μgcapita(-1)d(-1), winter: 25-112μgcapita(-1)d(-1)) and extrapolated to annual emissions for Switzerland (114-406kga(-1)) lie in the middle of ranges reported on the basis of substance flow analyses and emission inventories. The difference between summer and winter emissions is small compared to the difference that would be expected from the temperature dependence of PBDE vapor pressure, which would be consistent with emissions occurring to a large extent from flame-proofed materials located indoors under nearly constant temperature conditions and/or emissions to air occurring by suspension of particles containing PBDEs. Compared to previous studies in Switzerland, concentrations and emissions of PBDEs appear to have increased during the last five years with an increasing contribution of decabromodiphenyl ether, despite the addition of PBDEs to national and international regulations.
    Chemosphere 01/2014; · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 24 surface sediment samples were collected from the Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Canada Basin during the 3rd Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition in July–September 2008. To obtain information on the levels, spatial distribution, possible sources, and influences of total carbon and black carbon, we analyzed the samples for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE). Concentrations of P PBDEs (hereafter, P PBDEs refers to the sum of all detected PBDE congeners without BDE-209), BDE-209, and DBDPE were in the ranges 3.58–148.95 pg/g d.w. (dry weight), n.d. À 804.91 pg/g d.w. and n.d. À 452.57 pg/g d.w., respectively. The congener patterns of PBDEs suggested that BDE-209 was the major congener in these areas, followed by BDE-99 and À 47, which was consistent with the predominance of technical deca-BDE mixtures in the dominant technical PBDE mixtures. The significant relationships of BDE-209, -47, and -99 and total PBDEs with total organic carbon and black carbon, as well as the skewed distribution of P PBDEs and BDE-209, indicated that atmospheric deposition and local discharge might be potential sources in this area, and the distribution pattern may be the combined effect of multiple factors.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in sediments and two fish species collected from the Murchison Bay in Lake Victoria, using high resolution gas chromatography coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer. Total PCB concentrations (Σ18PCBs) varied widely with mean values ranging from 777 to 4325 pg g− 1 dry weight (dw) for sediments and 80 to 779 pg g− 1 wet weight (ww) for fish. The PCB levels in the sediments were significantly higher at the station closest to Nakivubo channel, presumably due to effluents discharged by the channel, which may contain domestically produced commercial PCB mixtures. For fish, the concentrations in Nile perch (Lates niloticus) were significantly greater than those in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at all study stations, possibly due to dietary differences among species. World Health Organization-toxic equivalents (WHO2005-TEQs) for the dioxin-like PCBs were 0.04–0.64 pg g− 1 dw and 0.01–0.39 pg g− 1 ww for sediments and fish, respectively. The non-ortho PCBs exhibited the highest contribution to the Σ12TEQs (> 75%) compared to the mono-ortho PCBs in both fish species. The TEQs in the present study were lower than many reported worldwide in literature for fish and were within the permissible level recommended by the European Commission, implying that the fish did not pose health hazards related to PCBs to the consumers.
    Science of The Total Environment 01/2014; s 482–483:349–357. · 3.26 Impact Factor


Available from
May 27, 2014