A polymorphism in human TLR2 is associated with increased susceptibility to tuberculous meningitis.
ABSTRACT Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) results from the haematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the lung to the brain. Dissemination is believed to occur early during infection, before the development of adaptive immunity. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) mediates recognition of M. tuberculosis and initiates the innate immune response to infection. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the TLR2 gene influence bacterial dissemination and the development of TBM. A case-control study was designed to test the hypothesis. Cases of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) (n=183) and TBM (n=175), and cord blood controls (n=389) were enrolled in Vietnam. TLR2 genotype 597CC was associated with susceptibility to TB (odds ratio (OR)=2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23-3.99). The association was found with meningeal rather than pulmonary TB (TBM vs control, OR=3.26, 95% CI: 1.72-6.18), and was strongest when miliary TB was found on chest radiography (controls vs TBM with miliary TB, OR=5.28, 95% CI: 2.20-12.65). Furthermore, the association increased with the severity of neurologic symptoms (grade I TBM, OR=1.93, 95% CI: 0.54-6.92; grade II, OR=3.32, 95% CI: 0.84-13.2; and grade III, OR=5.70, 95% CI: 1.81-18.0). These results demonstrate a strong association of TLR2 SNP T597C with the development of TBM and miliary TB and indicate that TLR2 influences the dissemination of M. tuberculosis.
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ABSTRACT: Background Palmitoylation is a 16-carbon lipid post-translational modification that increases protein hydrophobicity. This form of protein fatty acylation is emerging as a critical regulatory modification for multiple aspects of cellular interactions and signaling. Despite recent advances in the development of chemical tools for the rapid identification and visualization of palmitoylated proteins, the palmitoyl proteome has not been fully defined. Here we sought to identify and compare the palmitoylated proteins in murine fibroblasts and dendritic cells.Results563 putative palmitoylation substrates were identified, more than 200 of which have not been previously suggested to be palmitoylated in past proteomic studies. Here we validate the palmitoylation of several new proteins including TLRs 2, 5, and 10, CD80, CD86, and NEDD4. Palmitoylation of TLR2, which was uniquely identified in dendritic cells, was mapped to a transmembrane domain-proximal cysteine. Inhibition of TLR2 S-palmitoylation pharmacologically or by cysteine mutagenesis led to decreased cell surface expression and a decreased inflammatory response to microbial ligands.Conclusions This work identifies many fatty acylated proteins involved in fundamental cellular processes as well as cell type-specific functions, highlighting the value of examining the palmitoyl proteomes of multiple cell types. S-palmitoylation of TLR2 is a previously unknown immunoregulatory mechanism that represents an entirely novel avenue for modulation of TLR2 inflammatory activity.BMC Biology 11/2014; 12(1):91. DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-7770862013935069 · 7.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the best studied family of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) whose task is to rapidly recognize evolutionarily conserved structures on the invading microorganisms. Through binding to these patterns, TLRs trigger a number of proinflammatory and antimicrobial responses, playing a key role in the first line of defense against the pathogens promoting also adaptive immunity responses. Growing amounts of data suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the various human TLR proteins are associated with altered susceptibility to infection. This review summarizes the role of TLRs in innate immunity, their ligands and signaling and focuses to the TLR SNPs which have been linked to infectious disease susceptibility.Clinical & Experimental Immunology 01/2015; in press(2). DOI:10.1111/cei.12578 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated whether polymorphisms in the toll-like receptor genes or gene-gene interactions are associated with susceptibility to latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) or subsequent pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in a Chinese population. Two matched case-control studies were undertaken. Previously reported polymorphisms in the toll-like receptors (TLRs) were compared between 422 healthy controls (HC) and 205 LTBI patients and between 205 LTBI patients and 109 PTB patients, to assess whether these polymorphisms and their interactions are associated with LTBI or PTB. A PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to detect genetic polymorphisms in the TLR genes. Nonparametric multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) was used to analyze the effects of interactions between complex disease genes and other genes or environmental factors. Sixteen markers in TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, TLR8, TLR9, and TIRAP were detected. In TLR2, the frequencies of the CC genotype (OR = 2.262; 95% CI: 1.433-3.570) and C allele (OR = 1.566; 95% CI: 1.223-1.900) in single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3804100 were significantly higher in the LTBI group than in the HC group, whereas the GA genotype of SNP rs5743708 was associated with PTB (OR = 6.087; 95% CI: 1.687-21.968). The frequencies of the GG genotype of SNP rs7873784 in TLR4 (OR = 2.136; 95% CI: 1.312-3.478) and the CC genotype of rs3764879 in TLR8 (OR = 1.982; 95% CI: 1.292-3.042) were also significantly higher in the PTB group than in the HC group. The TC genotype frequency of SNP rs5743836 in TLR9 was significantly higher in the LTBI group than in the HC group (OR = 1.664; 95% CI: 1.201-2.306). An MDR analysis of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions identified three SNPs (rs10759932, rs7873784, and rs10759931) that predicted LTBI with 84% accuracy (p = 0.0004) and three SNPs (rs3804100, rs1898830, and rs10759931) that predicted PTB with 80% accuracy (p = 0.0001). Our results suggest that genetic variation in TLR2, 4, 8 and 9, implicating TLR-related pathways affecting the innate immunity response, modulate LTBI and PTB susceptibility in Chinese.BMC Medical Genetics 04/2015; 16(1):19. DOI:10.1186/s12881-015-0166-1 · 2.45 Impact Factor