Sponge-Associated Microorganisms: Evolution, Ecology, and Biotechnological Potential

Department of Microbial Ecology, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews (Impact Factor: 14.61). 07/2007; 71(2):295-347. DOI: 10.1128/MMBR.00040-06
Source: PubMed


Marine sponges often contain diverse and abundant microbial communities, including bacteria, archaea, microalgae, and fungi. In some cases, these microbial associates comprise as much as 40% of the sponge volume and can contribute significantly to host metabolism (e.g., via photosynthesis or nitrogen fixation). We review in detail the diversity of microbes associated with sponges, including extensive 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic analyses which support the previously suggested existence of a sponge-specific microbiota. These analyses provide a suitable vantage point from which to consider the potential evolutionary and ecological ramifications of these widespread, sponge-specific microorganisms. Subsequently, we examine the ecology of sponge-microbe associations, including the establishment and maintenance of these sometimes intimate partnerships, the varied nature of the interactions (ranging from mutualism to host-pathogen relationships), and the broad-scale patterns of symbiont distribution. The ecological and evolutionary importance of sponge-microbe associations is mirrored by their enormous biotechnological potential: marine sponges are among the animal kingdom's most prolific producers of bioactive metabolites, and in at least some cases, the compounds are of microbial rather than sponge origin. We review the status of this important field, outlining the various approaches (e.g., cultivation, cell separation, and metagenomics) which have been employed to access the chemical wealth of sponge-microbe associations.

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Available from: Michael Wagner, Oct 03, 2015
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    • "As one of the oldest multicellular animals (Love et al., 2009), marine sponges (phylum Porifera) often harbor dense and diverse microbial communities, and the sponge-microbe associations represent one of the most complex symbioses on earth (Taylor et al., 2007). Actinobacteria are commonly found in association with sponges (Simister et al., 2012). "
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    • "Five phyla of bacteria found in symbiosis in sponges, including the phylum Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria α-and γ- Proteobacteria [7]. Sponges produce chemical compounds as part of a defense system against predators and competitors [7]. The chemical compounds will also induce symbiotic microorganisms with a sponge to produce specific secondary metabolites [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Marine sponges are invertebrates in marine ecosystem which have the essential value such as pharmaceutical resources and ecological aspect in marine ecosystems. Exploitation on this sponge recently improved and several aspect of it also more have attention. Based on sponge characteristics, many microorganisms have the relationship with this creature. The microorganisms can be isolated to the numerous aspect of human life. This study purposes are isolate and determine the type and the characteristics of symbiotic bacteria on a sponge Haliclona sp. from Situbondo coastal water, East Java. The focus of characterizations is extracellular enzymes including amylolytic, proteolytic, and cellulolytic. This research was conducted qualitatively by using descriptive methods, which is data analysis was depicted in graphics and figures. The results showed that the overall bacteria symbiotic with sponges Haliclona sp. had activity in producing the enzyme amylase, cellulose, and protease and bacteria that have the best activity in producing an enzyme identified as Enterobacter sp.
    International Conference on Life Sciences and Biotechnology; 09/2015
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    • "significance (Bell 2008), production of bioactive metabolites (Blunt et al. 2011), and their interactions with a diverse range of microorganisms (Hentschel et al. 2006; Taylor et al. 2007b; Webster and Taylor 2011). It is the latter that forms the main focus for this article, though it becomes increasingly evident that associated microbes play, or have played, a role in each of the preceding features as well. "
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