Truncated D-4'-thioadenosine derivatives lacking the 4'-hydroxymethylene moiety were synthesized starting from D-mannose, using cyclization to the 4-thiosugar and one-step conversion of the diol to the acetate as key steps. At the human A3 adenosine receptor (AR), N6-substituted purine analogues bound potently and selectively and acted as antagonists in a cyclic AMP functional assay. An N6-(3-chlorobenzyl)purine analogue 9b displayed a Ki value of 1.66 nM at the human A3 AR. Thus, truncated D-4'-thioadenosine is an excellent template for the design of novel A3 AR antagonists to act at both human and murine species.
"The derivatives MRS 3826 and MRS 3827 are esters of MRS 3771 and LJ 979, respectively. The fifth derivative LJ 1251 was developed by removing the 5′-uronamide, entirely, in order to eliminate H-bonding at that position, accompanied by the 4′-thio substitution (Jeong et al., 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to determine whether novel, selective antagonists of human A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) derived from the A3-selective agonist Cl-IB-MECA lower intraocular pressure (IOP) and act across species. IOP was measured invasively with a micropipette by the Servo-Null Micropipette System (SNMS) and by non-invasive pneumotonometry during topical drug application. Antagonist efficacy was also assayed by measuring inhibition of adenosine-triggered shrinkage of native bovine nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE) cells. Five agonist-based A3AR antagonists lowered mouse IOP measured with SNMS tonometry by 3-5 mm Hg within minutes of topical application. Of the five agonist derivatives, LJ 1251 was the only antagonist to lower IOP measured by pneumotonometry. No effect was detected pneumotonometrically over 30 min following application of the other four compounds, consonant with slower, smaller responses previously measured non-invasively following topical application of A3AR agonists and the dihydropyridine A3AR antagonist MRS 1191. Latanoprost similarly lowered SNMS-measured IOP, but not IOP measured non-invasively over 30 min. Like MRS 1191, agonist-based A3AR antagonists applied to native bovine NPE cells inhibited adenosine-triggered shrinkage. In summary, the results indicate that antagonists of human A3ARs derived from the potent, selective A3 agonist Cl-IB-MECA display efficacy in mouse and bovine cells, as well. When intraocular delivery was enhanced by measuring mouse IOP invasively, five derivatives of the A3AR agonist Cl-IB-MECA lowered IOP but only one rapidly reduced IOP measured non-invasively after topical application. We conclude that derivatives of the highly-selective A3AR agonist Cl-IB-MECA can reduce IOP upon reaching their intraocular target, and that nucleoside-based derivatives are promising A3 antagonists for study in multiple animal models.
Experimental Eye Research 10/2009; 90(1):146-54. DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2009.10.001 · 2.71 Impact Factor
"Recently, nucleosides that are truncated at the 4′ position were found to act as A 3 AR antagonists. For example, (2R, 3R, 4S)-2-(2- chloro-6-(3-chlorobenzylamino)-9H -purin-9-yl)tetrahydrothiophene-3,4-diol (LJ-1416, 80) and (2R, 3R, 4S)-2-(2-chloro-6-(3-iodobenzylamino)-9H-purin-9- yl)tetrahydrothiophene-3,4-diol (LJ-1251, 81) (Fig. 13) (Jeong et al. 2007) displayed K i values of 1.66 and 4.16 nM, respectively, at the human A 3 AR, with > 600-fold selectivity in comparison to the A 1 AR. LJ-1251 was shown to have neuroprotective properties in an ischemia model in the rat hippocampus (Pugliese et al. 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A(3) adenosine receptor (A(3)AR) ligands have been modified to optimize their interaction with the A(3)AR. Most of these modifications have been made to the N(6) and C2 positions of adenine as well as the ribose moiety, and using a combination of these substitutions leads to the most efficacious, selective, and potent ligands. A(3)AR agonists such as IB-MECA and Cl-IB-MECA are now advancing into Phase II clinical trials for treatments targeting diseases such as cancer, arthritis, and psoriasis. Also, a wide number of compounds exerting high potency and selectivity in antagonizing the human (h)A(3)AR have been discovered. These molecules are generally characterized by a notable structural diversity, taking into account that aromatic nitrogen-containing monocyclic (thiazoles and thiadiazoles), bicyclic (isoquinoline, quinozalines, (aza)adenines), tricyclic systems (pyrazoloquinolines, triazoloquinoxalines, pyrazolotriazolopyrimidines, triazolopurines, tricyclic xanthines) and nucleoside derivatives have been identified as potent and selective A(3)AR antagonists. Probably due to the "enigmatic" physiological role of A(3)AR, whose activation may produce opposite effects (for example, concerning tissue protection in inflammatory and cancer cells) and may produce effects that are species dependent, only a few molecules have reached preclinical investigation. Indeed, the most advanced A(3)AR antagonists remain in preclinical testing. Among the antagonists described above, compound OT-7999 is expected to enter clinical trials for the treatment of glaucoma, while several thiazole derivatives are in development as antiallergic, antiasthmatic and/or antiinflammatory drugs.
Handbook of experimental pharmacology 02/2009; 193(193):123-59. DOI:10.1007/978-3-540-89615-9_5
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of adenosine A3 receptors in synaptic transmission under severe (7min) and shorter (2–5min) ischemic conditions, obtained by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), was investigated in rat hippocampal slices. The effects of selective A3 agonists or antagonists were examined on field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) extracellularly recorded at the dendritic level of the CA1 pyramidal region. The novel, selective A3 antagonist LJ1251 ((2R,3R,4S)-2-(2-chloro-6-(3-iodobenzylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl)tetrahydrothiophene-3,4-diol, 0.1–10nM) protected hippocampal slices from irreversible fEPSP depression induced by severe OGD and prevented or delayed the appearance of anoxic depolarization. Similar results were obtained when severe OGD was carried out with a long, receptor-desensitizing exposure to various selective A3 agonists: 5′-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine derivatives Cl-IB-MECA (N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-2-chloro), VT72 (N6-methoxy-2-phenylethynyl), VT158 (N6-methoxy-2-phenylethynyl), VT160 (N6-methoxy-2-(2-pyridinyl)-ethynyl), and VT163 (N6-methoxy-2-p-acetylphenylethynyl) and AR132 (N6-methyl-2-phenylethynyladenosine).The selective A3 antagonist MRS1523 (3-propyl-6-ethyl-5-[(ethylthio)carbonyl]-2-phenyl-4-propyl-3-pyridine carboxylate, 100nM) reduced fEPSP depression evoked by 2-min OGD and induced a faster recovery of fEPSP amplitude after 5-min OGD. Similar results were obtained for 2- or 5-min OGD applied in the presence of each of the A3 agonists tested. Shorter exposure to A3 agonists significantly delayed the recovery of fEPSP amplitude after 5-min OGD.This indicates that A3 receptors, stimulated by selective A3 agonists, undergo desensitization during OGD. It is inferred that CA1 hippocampal A3 receptors stimulated by adenosine released during brief ischemia (2 and 5min) might exert A1-like protective effects on neurotransmission. Severe ischemia would transform the A3 receptor-mediated effects from protective to injurious.
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