Discovery of a new nucleoside template for human A(3) adenosine receptor ligands: D-4 '-thioadenosine derivatives without 4 '-hydroxymethyl group as highly potent and selective antagonists
ABSTRACT Truncated D-4'-thioadenosine derivatives lacking the 4'-hydroxymethylene moiety were synthesized starting from D-mannose, using cyclization to the 4-thiosugar and one-step conversion of the diol to the acetate as key steps. At the human A3 adenosine receptor (AR), N6-substituted purine analogues bound potently and selectively and acted as antagonists in a cyclic AMP functional assay. An N6-(3-chlorobenzyl)purine analogue 9b displayed a Ki value of 1.66 nM at the human A3 AR. Thus, truncated D-4'-thioadenosine is an excellent template for the design of novel A3 AR antagonists to act at both human and murine species.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to determine whether novel, selective antagonists of human A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) derived from the A3-selective agonist Cl-IB-MECA lower intraocular pressure (IOP) and act across species. IOP was measured invasively with a micropipette by the Servo-Null Micropipette System (SNMS) and by non-invasive pneumotonometry during topical drug application. Antagonist efficacy was also assayed by measuring inhibition of adenosine-triggered shrinkage of native bovine nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE) cells. Five agonist-based A3AR antagonists lowered mouse IOP measured with SNMS tonometry by 3-5 mm Hg within minutes of topical application. Of the five agonist derivatives, LJ 1251 was the only antagonist to lower IOP measured by pneumotonometry. No effect was detected pneumotonometrically over 30 min following application of the other four compounds, consonant with slower, smaller responses previously measured non-invasively following topical application of A3AR agonists and the dihydropyridine A3AR antagonist MRS 1191. Latanoprost similarly lowered SNMS-measured IOP, but not IOP measured non-invasively over 30 min. Like MRS 1191, agonist-based A3AR antagonists applied to native bovine NPE cells inhibited adenosine-triggered shrinkage. In summary, the results indicate that antagonists of human A3ARs derived from the potent, selective A3 agonist Cl-IB-MECA display efficacy in mouse and bovine cells, as well. When intraocular delivery was enhanced by measuring mouse IOP invasively, five derivatives of the A3AR agonist Cl-IB-MECA lowered IOP but only one rapidly reduced IOP measured non-invasively after topical application. We conclude that derivatives of the highly-selective A3AR agonist Cl-IB-MECA can reduce IOP upon reaching their intraocular target, and that nucleoside-based derivatives are promising A3 antagonists for study in multiple animal models.Experimental Eye Research 10/2009; 90(1):146-54. DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2009.10.001 · 3.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A(3) adenosine receptor (A(3)AR) ligands have been modified to optimize their interaction with the A(3)AR. Most of these modifications have been made to the N(6) and C2 positions of adenine as well as the ribose moiety, and using a combination of these substitutions leads to the most efficacious, selective, and potent ligands. A(3)AR agonists such as IB-MECA and Cl-IB-MECA are now advancing into Phase II clinical trials for treatments targeting diseases such as cancer, arthritis, and psoriasis. Also, a wide number of compounds exerting high potency and selectivity in antagonizing the human (h)A(3)AR have been discovered. These molecules are generally characterized by a notable structural diversity, taking into account that aromatic nitrogen-containing monocyclic (thiazoles and thiadiazoles), bicyclic (isoquinoline, quinozalines, (aza)adenines), tricyclic systems (pyrazoloquinolines, triazoloquinoxalines, pyrazolotriazolopyrimidines, triazolopurines, tricyclic xanthines) and nucleoside derivatives have been identified as potent and selective A(3)AR antagonists. Probably due to the "enigmatic" physiological role of A(3)AR, whose activation may produce opposite effects (for example, concerning tissue protection in inflammatory and cancer cells) and may produce effects that are species dependent, only a few molecules have reached preclinical investigation. Indeed, the most advanced A(3)AR antagonists remain in preclinical testing. Among the antagonists described above, compound OT-7999 is expected to enter clinical trials for the treatment of glaucoma, while several thiazole derivatives are in development as antiallergic, antiasthmatic and/or antiinflammatory drugs.Handbook of experimental pharmacology 02/2009; DOI:10.1007/978-3-540-89615-9_5
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ABSTRACT: An efficient synthetic method for the preparation of N-(purin-6-yl)amino acids and their derivatives from readily available natural amino acids under mild reaction conditions has been developed. A one-pot reaction within a short reaction time gives high yields of the chiral N-(purin-6-yl)amino acid derivatives with an easy post-reaction procedure, which is promising for large-scale production.Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry 11/2012; 1(3). DOI:10.1002/ajoc.201200081 · 2.29 Impact Factor