Water-equivalent dosimeter array for small-field external beam radiotherapy.
ABSTRACT With the increasing complexity of dose patterns external beam radiotherapy, there is a great need for new types of dosimeters. We studied the first prototype of a new dosimeter array consisting of water-equivalent plastic scintillating fibers for dose measurement in external beam radiotherapy. We found that this array allows precise, rapid dose evaluation of small photon fields. Starting with a dosimeter system constructed with a single scintillating fiber coupled to a clear optical fiber and read using a charge coupled device camera, we looked at the dosimeter's spatial resolution under small radiation fields and angular dependence. Afterward, we analyzed the camera's light collection to determine the maximum array size that could be built. Finally, we developed a prototype made of ten scintillating fiber detectors to study the behavior and precision of this system in simple dosimetric situations. The scintillation detector showed no measurable angular dependence. Comparison of the scintillation detector and a small-volume ion chamber showed agreement except for 1 x 1 and 0.5 x 5.0 cm (2) fields where the output factor measured by the scintillator was higher. The actual field of view of the camera could accept more than 4000 scintillating fiber detectors simultaneously. Evaluation of the dose profile and depth dose curve using a prototype with ten scintillating fiber detectors showed precise, rapid dose evaluation even with placement of more than 75 optical fibers in the field to simulate what would happen in a larger array. We concluded that this scintillating fiber dosimeter array is a valuable tool for dose measurement in external beam radiotherapy. It possesses the qualities necessary to evaluate small and irregular fields with various incident angles such as those encountered in intensity-modulated radiotherapy, radiosurgery, and tomotherapy.
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ABSTRACT: The need for fast, accurate and high resolution dosimetric quality assurance in radiation therapy has been outpacing the development of new and improved 2D and 3D dosimetry techniques. This paper summarizes the efforts to create a novel and potentially very fast, 3D dosimetry method based on the observation of scintillation light from an irradiated liquid scintillator volume serving simultaneously as a phantom material and as a dose detector medium. The method, named three-dimensional scintillation dosimetry (3DSD), uses visible light images of the liquid scintillator volume at multiple angles and applies a tomographic algorithm to a series of these images to reconstruct the scintillation light emission density in each voxel of the volume. It is based on the hypothesis that with careful design and data processing, one can achieve acceptable proportionality between the local light emission density and the locally absorbed dose. The method is applied to a Ru-106 eye plaque immersed in a 16.4 cm3 liquid scintillator volume and the reconstructed 3D dose map is compared along selected profiles and planes with radiochromic film and diode measurements. The comparison indicates that the 3DSD method agrees, within 25% for most points or within approximately 2 mm distance to agreement, with the relative radiochromic film and diode dose distributions in a small (approximately 4.5 mm high and approximately 12 mm diameter) volume in the unobstructed, high gradient dose region outside the edge of the plaque. For a comparison, the reproducibility of the radiochromic film results for our measurements ranges from 10 to 15% within this volume. At present, the 3DSD method is not accurate close to the edge of the plaque, and further than approximately 10 mm (<10% central axis depth dose) from the plaque surface. Improvement strategies, considered important to provide a more accurate quick check of the dose profiles in 3D for brachytherapy applicators, are discussed.Physics in Medicine and Biology 08/2005; 50(13):3063-81. · 2.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: (Received 22 October 2001; accepted for publication 26 March 2002; published 22 May 2002) With advanced conformal radiotherapy using intensity modulated beams, it is important to have radiation dose verification measurements prior to treatment. Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFET) have the advantage of a faster and simpler reading procedure compared to thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD), and with the commercial MOSFET system, multiple detectors can be used simultaneously. In addition, the small size of the detector could be advantageous, especially for point dose measurements in small homogeneous dose regions. To evaluate the feasibility of MOSFET for routine IMRT dosimetry, a comprehensive set of experiments has been conducted, to investigate the stability, linearity, energy, and angular dependence. For a period of two weeks, under a standard measurement setup, the measured dose standard deviation using the MOSFETs was +/- 0.015 Gy with the mean dose being 1.00 Gy. For a measured dose range of 0.3 Gy to 4.2 Gy, the MOSFETs present a linear response, with a linearity coefficient of 0.998. Under a 10 x 10 cm2 square field, the dose variations measured by the MOSFETs for every 10 degrees from 0 to 180 degrees is +/- 2.5%. The percent depth dose (PDD) measurements were used to verify the energy dependence. The measured PDD using the MOSFETs from 0.5 cm to 34 cm depth agreed to within +/- 3% when compared to that of the ionization chamber. For IMRT dose verification, two special phantoms were designed. One is a solid water slab with 81 possible MOSFET placement holes, and another is a cylindrical phantom with 48 placement holes. For each IMRT phantom verification, an ionization chamber and 3 to 5 MOSFETs were used to measure multiple point doses at different locations. Preliminary results show that the agreement between dose measured by MOSFET and that calculated by Corvus is within 5% error, while the agreement between ionization chamber measurement and the calculation is within 3% error. In conclusion, MOSFET detectors are suitable for routine IMRT dose verification.Medical Physics 07/2002; 29(6):1109-15. · 2.91 Impact Factor
- International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 05/2004; 58(5):1616-34. · 4.52 Impact Factor