The Scoliosis Research Society classification for adult spinal deformity.
ABSTRACT The management of adult spinal deformity is characterized by significant variability in operative and nonoperative approaches. Adult spinal deformity encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders of the spine, and the disparity observed in reported clinical outcomes of operative and nonoperative care reflects the heterogeneity of the cases studied. A classification of spinal deformity in adults is important in providing a framework for comparison of similar cases and for reporting outcomes on well-defined disorders. Existing classifications of scoliosis are limited in their applicability to adult deformity because they do not include parameters of lumbar degenerative change and regional sagittal alignment that are critical to decision making in surgical care of the adult. The Scoliosis Research Society classification for adult deformity is presented in this article. The purpose of this classification is to provide a framework for reporting similar cases and to contribute to the development of an evidence-based approach to the management of adult spinal deformity.
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ABSTRACT: Scoliosis is usually considered the weak point of the orthopaedic specialist. However a diagnosis of this pathology is easy, if he knows how to recognize its signs. For this reason anamnesis and an appropriate clinical evaluation are very important. The aim of this work is to give simple advice on how to evaluate and classify the scoliotic syndrome.Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia 07/2009; 120(1):5-7. DOI:10.1007/s10261-009-0018-7
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ABSTRACT: Die adulte Skoliose ist als frontale strukturelle Seitausbiegung der Wirbelsäule von >10° bei Patienten nach Abschluss des Knochenwachstums definiert. Führende Symptome der Patienten sind der Rückenschmerz, oftmals wird dieser von einer Claudicatio spinalis als Folge einer zentralen, foraminalen oder rezessalen Stenose begleitet. Die pathophysiologisch maßgebliche asymmetrische Degeneration führt zu einer asymmetrischen Lastverteilung, was wiederum die weitere Degeneration und Deformität antreibt (Merkmale: frontale Dekompensation, segmentale Kyphose). Dabei entwickelt sich eine Progression der Skoliose (0,5–1,0°/Jahr) sowie der Kyphose. Zur Diagnostik gehören Röntgenbilder inklusive Funktionsaufnahmen, MRT, Myelo-CT und invasiv-diagnostische Maßnahmen wie Diskographien, Facettenblockaden, Wurzelblockaden und epidurale Injektionen. Die Therapie (konservativ oder operativ) zielt auf die individuelle Symptomatologie des Patienten. Insbesondere ist die chirurgische Therapie anspruchsvoll und mitunter wegen des Alters und der Komorbiditäten der Patienten, der Ausdehnung der Fusionsstrecke, des Zustands des Anschlusssegments und des Iliosakralgelenks, der Osteoporose oder Osteopenie und eventueller Voroperationen problematisch. Im Falle einer Korrektur ist das Hauptziel die Wiederherstellung der sagittalen und frontalen Balance. Diese Übersicht befasst sich mit den besonderen Indikationen für die Zementaugmentation bei Osteoporose und der Problematik der Anschlussdegeneration und deren chirurgischem Management. Adult scoliosis is defined as a spinal deformity with a Cobb angle of more than 10° in the coronal plain in a skeletally mature patient. Patients predominantly suffer from back pain symptoms, often accompanied by signs of spinal stenosis (central as well as lateral). Asymmetric degeneration leads to asymmetric load and therefore to a progression of the degeneration and deformity as either scoliosis (0.5–1° per year), kyphosis, or both. The diagnostic evaluation includes static and dynamic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and myelo-computed tomography, as well as invasive diagnostic procedures such as discograms, facet blocks, and epidural and root blocks. The treatment, either conservative or surgical, is then tailored to the patient’s specific symptomatology. Surgical management is usually complex and must take into account an array of specific problems, including the patient’s age and general medical condition, the length of the fusion, the condition of the adjacent segments, the condition of the lumbosacral junction, osteoporosis, and any previous scoliosis surgery. The main goal of corrective surgery is a balancing of the coronal and sagittal planes. This review focuses on the special indications for vertebral body cement augmentation in patients with osteoporosis and the problem of adjacent level degeneration and its surgical management.Der Orthopäde 02/2009; 38(2):159-169. DOI:10.1007/s00132-008-1391-5 · 0.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Study Design A prospective study of de novo degenerative lumbar scoliosis in a community-based cohort. Objectives To investigate risk factors and natural history of de novo scoliosis in the elderly. Summary of Background Data Most previous studies have focused on the risk of progression with greater curve magnitude, which often manifests with serious clinical symptoms. There have only been a few reports regarding the etiology of de novo scoliosis. Methods Subjects (n = 400) were selected by sex and age from a list of 1,543 district residents, born from 1910 to 1949; 50 men and 50 women were selected from each age decade. Radiographic examinations of the lumbar spine in anteroposterior and lateral views were performed in 1990 and repeated in 2005 and 2008. De novo scoliosis was defined as newly developed scoliosis (a Cobb angle of 10° or greater and an increase in Cobb angle 5° or greater) in 2005 or 2008. Results Evaluation of radiographic surveys was completed for 200 of the 400 participants in 2005 and for 154 in 2008. De novo scoliosis was found in 33 inhabitants in 2005 and 24 in 2008. The scoliotic angles were less than 30°. During the follow-up period, significant asymmetric intervertebral disc degeneration developed, especially in the upper lumbar spine (p < .03), and lumbar coronal imbalance was significantly increased (p = .016). Logistic regression analysis, which was performed with the occurrence of scoliosis as an objective factor, identified L3 rotation as a significant risk factor (odds ratio, 13.95; 95% confidence interval, 4.05–52.34; p < .0001). Conclusions This epidemiological study using radiography of the lumbar spine suggests that patients with asymmetric intervertebral disc degeneration and rotation of L3 in initial radiography without scoliosis should be closely followed up to observe the occurrence of scoliosis. Although the incidence of de novo scoliosis increases with age, scoliosis is usually benign.07/2013; 1(4):287–292. DOI:10.1016/j.jspd.2013.05.005