Three-dimensional echocardiographic evaluation of right ventricular volume and function in pediatric patients: validation of the technique.
ABSTRACT The right ventricle (RV) is the main ventricular chamber in many congenital heart diseases before and after surgical correction, and it is the most important determinant of outcome in postoperative tetralogy of Fallot and other complex malformations. Unfortunately its irregular crescentic shape does not allow the use of the geometric assumption used for the left ventricle. Many methods have been suggested in the literature to overcome this problem, none fully reliable. The introduction of volume-rendered 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of echocardiography images provides a tool for the direct measurement of cardiac chambers, not based on geometric assumptions. The aim of this research study was to determine the accuracy of 3D echocardiography (3DE) to measure RV volumes in pediatric patients with secundum atrial septal defects, compared with direct volume measurements performed during the intervention. We performed 3DE study in the operating department, with the patient anesthetized, intubated, and ventilated before the surgical procedure. Sequential 2-dimensional echocardiographic images for subsequent 3D rendering were acquired using an ultrasound machine with a transthoracic 4-MHz rotational or 5-MHz transesophageal omniplane probe; in the last 5 patients a machine was used that was equipped with a 3600-crystal real-time 3D probe. To validate the 3DE measurements, these were compared with the volume of the RV directly measured in the operating department, at the end of the surgical procedure, injecting saline solution through the tricuspid valve, using a graduate syringe. Among 25 pediatric patients enrolled in the study, with an age range of 1 and 14 years (mean 4 years) and a weight range of 8.5 to 57.4 kg (mean 18.6 kg), in 23 a mean of 3 echocardiographic acquisitions were performed and compared with the direct measurement. A close comparison was found between RV volumes measured by 3DE and direct volume measurements (P < .00001). The regression line, shifted toward the y axis, which describes the 3DE volumes, indicated that the echocardiographic measures overestimate the surgical ones. In our study this overestimation had the mean of 9% with values comprised between 3% and 19%. The coefficient of repeatability was 4.79 mL with all the values within this range (2 SD of the mean). We conclude that 3DE provides an accurate measurement of RV volume in pediatric patients with RV volume overload. It is a reliable, noninvasive, and nongeometric method of evaluation of the volume of this chamber, and can be considered a precious tool in the armamentarium of the pediatric cardiologist.
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Pressure-volume relations (PVR) provide vital information regarding ventricular performance and cardiac pathophysiology. Acquiring PVR by conductance catheter technology is invasive and laborious, which explains why the assessment of PVR is not used in clinical practice. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) allows almost instantaneous capture of ventricular volume changes throughout the cardiac cycle. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of 3DE combined with pressure data to calculate PVR in children and adolescents. METHODS: In 31 patients with congenital heart disease (age 3 days-22.7 years, weight 2.75-80.0 kg), ventricular pressure was recorded by a mini pressure wire during routine catheterization. Simultaneously, 3D datasets of the left or right ventricle were acquired for calculation of volume. PVR were generated from contemporaneous 3D volume and pressure data. Systolic myocardial elastance, ventriculo-arterial coupling, diastolic relaxation constant Tau and end-diastolic PVR were determined using a single-beat approach. RESULTS: Computation of PVR using non-invasive 3D volume data and pressure curves obtained by mini pressure wire was easy, feasible and reproducible. On average, 6 [3-11] PVR, needing an additional examination time of 6.5 ± 3.5 min, were acquired. Both intra- and interobserver variability were good for all measured parameters (coefficient of variation <10%). CONCLUSIONS: Calculation of PVR from 3DE volume curves and simultaneous pressure data obtained by a mini pressure wire is a feasible method to assess cardiac function. Due to the tiny size of the pressure wire used, PVR can be acquired even in small neonates with congenital heart disease.Clinical Research in Cardiology 02/2013; · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A varying degree of impairment of ventricular performance is observed over the long-term after surgery for a congenital heart defect (CHD). Impaired ventricular performance has been shown to be of prognostic value for increased risk of cardiovascular events in adult CHD patients. This emphasizes the importance of delineating the timing and cause of this postoperative impairment. Impairment of ventricular performance could develop over time as a consequence of residua, sequelae and complications of the CHD or surgical procedure. Yet, impaired ventricular performance has also been observed immediately after surgery and can persist and/or worsen over time. This postoperative impairment of ventricular performance is the focus of this review. This article provides an overview of echocardiographic techniques currently used to assess ventricular performance. Furthermore, we review current literature describing ventricular performance, as assessed using echocardiography, after correction of a CHD. In general, a decrease in ventricular performance is observed directly after surgery for CHD's. Subsequent follow-up of ventricular performance is characterized by a varying degree of postoperative recovery. A consistent observation is the persistent impairment of right-ventricular performance after repair in several different subgroups of CHD patients ranging from ventricular septal defect repair to surgery for Tetralogy of Fallot.Pediatric Cardiology 10/2013; · 1.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Quantitative measurement of left ventricular (LV) volumes, mass, and function is one of the most common and important indications for echocardiography. These measurements are among the most powerful tools for diagnosis and prognosis of congenital and acquired heart diseases and for assessment of medical, percutaneous, and surgical interventions. Awareness is also growing of the importance of right ventricular (RV) volume, mass, and function in many cardiopulmonary diseases. Furthermore, there are challenges and opportunities to measure the volume, mass, and function of complex chambers such as the left atrium, right atrium, and the univentricular heart. As echocardiography continues to be the imaging modality of choice for these measurements, the strengths and limitations of M-mode, two-dimensional (2D), and recently three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic (3DE) methodologies for accurate and reproducible measurement of these indices have been extensively investigated for congenital and acquired heart diseases. Evidence suggests that 3DE provides improved accuracy and reproducibility over 2D methods for measurement of LV volume and function calculation in adults and in children. Data have accumulated on the utility of 3DE for measuring chamber volumes and function for the RV and for the single ventricle, which may become more widely used in clinical and research arenas in the future. Finally, new advanced modes of analysis such as 3D strain and synchrony analysis by 3DE are promising methodologies that warrant further investigation.Echocardiography 04/2013; 30(4):472-82. · 1.26 Impact Factor