Three-dimensional echocardiographic evaluation of right ventricular volume and function in pediatric patients: validation of the technique.
ABSTRACT The right ventricle (RV) is the main ventricular chamber in many congenital heart diseases before and after surgical correction, and it is the most important determinant of outcome in postoperative tetralogy of Fallot and other complex malformations. Unfortunately its irregular crescentic shape does not allow the use of the geometric assumption used for the left ventricle. Many methods have been suggested in the literature to overcome this problem, none fully reliable. The introduction of volume-rendered 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of echocardiography images provides a tool for the direct measurement of cardiac chambers, not based on geometric assumptions. The aim of this research study was to determine the accuracy of 3D echocardiography (3DE) to measure RV volumes in pediatric patients with secundum atrial septal defects, compared with direct volume measurements performed during the intervention. We performed 3DE study in the operating department, with the patient anesthetized, intubated, and ventilated before the surgical procedure. Sequential 2-dimensional echocardiographic images for subsequent 3D rendering were acquired using an ultrasound machine with a transthoracic 4-MHz rotational or 5-MHz transesophageal omniplane probe; in the last 5 patients a machine was used that was equipped with a 3600-crystal real-time 3D probe. To validate the 3DE measurements, these were compared with the volume of the RV directly measured in the operating department, at the end of the surgical procedure, injecting saline solution through the tricuspid valve, using a graduate syringe. Among 25 pediatric patients enrolled in the study, with an age range of 1 and 14 years (mean 4 years) and a weight range of 8.5 to 57.4 kg (mean 18.6 kg), in 23 a mean of 3 echocardiographic acquisitions were performed and compared with the direct measurement. A close comparison was found between RV volumes measured by 3DE and direct volume measurements (P < .00001). The regression line, shifted toward the y axis, which describes the 3DE volumes, indicated that the echocardiographic measures overestimate the surgical ones. In our study this overestimation had the mean of 9% with values comprised between 3% and 19%. The coefficient of repeatability was 4.79 mL with all the values within this range (2 SD of the mean). We conclude that 3DE provides an accurate measurement of RV volume in pediatric patients with RV volume overload. It is a reliable, noninvasive, and nongeometric method of evaluation of the volume of this chamber, and can be considered a precious tool in the armamentarium of the pediatric cardiologist.
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ABSTRACT: Summary form only given, as follows. A new learning algorithm is presented for a mapping artificial neural network. The algorithm was discovered during experimentation with backpropagation and counterpropagation networks. The backpropagation network has an excellent way of representing the knowledge, but its learning procedure converges very slowly toward the desired solution. On the other hand, the counterpropagation network's learning behavior is very predictable and straightforward, but the knowledge acquired is somewhat deficient. The author uses the same knowledge representation as in the counterpropagation network, but the learning algorithm is modified to overcome the described deficiency01/1989;
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ABSTRACT: Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is an important tool for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Appropriate use of TTE can reduce the need for more invasive and complex modalities, such as cardiac catheterization and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. New echocardiographic techniques have emerged for the assessment of ventricular systolic and diastolic function: Tissue Doppler imaging, tissue tracking, strain and strain rate imaging, vector velocity imaging (VVI), myocardial performance index, myocardial acceleration during isovolumic contraction (IVA), the ratio of systolic to diastolic duration (S/D ratio), and other measurements of systolic right ventricular (RV) function like tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE). These modalities may become valuable indicators of ventricular performance, compliance and disease progression, with the caveat of preload-dependency of the variables measured. In addition, three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography for the assessment of cardiac anatomy, valvular function, device position, ventricular volumes and ejection fraction is integrated into routine clinical care. In this review, we discuss the potential use and limitations of these new echocardiographic techniques in patients with CHD. A particular focus is on the echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular (RV) function by means of tissue Doppler imaging, tissue tracking, and three-dimensional imaging, in conditions associated with increased right ventricular volume or pressure load.Journal of clinical & experimental cardiology. 01/2012; Suppl 8:2.
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ABSTRACT: A varying degree of impairment of ventricular performance is observed over the long-term after surgery for a congenital heart defect (CHD). Impaired ventricular performance has been shown to be of prognostic value for increased risk of cardiovascular events in adult CHD patients. This emphasizes the importance of delineating the timing and cause of this postoperative impairment. Impairment of ventricular performance could develop over time as a consequence of residua, sequelae and complications of the CHD or surgical procedure. Yet, impaired ventricular performance has also been observed immediately after surgery and can persist and/or worsen over time. This postoperative impairment of ventricular performance is the focus of this review. This article provides an overview of echocardiographic techniques currently used to assess ventricular performance. Furthermore, we review current literature describing ventricular performance, as assessed using echocardiography, after correction of a CHD. In general, a decrease in ventricular performance is observed directly after surgery for CHD's. Subsequent follow-up of ventricular performance is characterized by a varying degree of postoperative recovery. A consistent observation is the persistent impairment of right-ventricular performance after repair in several different subgroups of CHD patients ranging from ventricular septal defect repair to surgery for Tetralogy of Fallot.Pediatric Cardiology 10/2013; · 1.20 Impact Factor