The effect of opioids on sleep architecture.
ABSTRACT The effect of opioid medications on sleep architecture has been demonstrated in patients with comorbid pain or opioid addiction. This study examined whether commonly used opioid medications have an adverse effect on sleep architecture in healthy adults.
Forty-two healthy subjects were examined with polysomnography after a bedtime dose of placebo, sustained-release morphine sulfate (15 mg), or methadone (5 mg) on each of 3 different nights in a double-blind multiple crossover study in a sleep laboratory in the General Clinical Research Center at an academic medical center.
Both opioid drugs significantly reduced deep sleep and increased stage 2 sleep (both p < .01); neither had an effect on sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, or total sleep time.
Single doses of oral opioid medications can significantly affect sleep architecture in healthy adults, and observed reductions in slow-wave sleep following opioid administration may have important implications for the pathogenesis of opioid-use related fatigue.
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ABSTRACT: Opioid treatment of non-malignant chronic pain can result in hypoxemia, hypercarbia, and central sleep apnea. The aim of this study was to determine the initial efficacy of auto servo-ventilation (ASV) and after 3 months of home use. This prospective multicenter interventional study recruited chronic pain patients prescribed ≥100 morphine equivalents for at least 4 months. Following full-night polysomnography (PSG) to confirm the presence of sleep-disordered breathing, patients were randomized to three additional full-night-attended PSGs with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), ASV, and servo-ventilation with an initial mandatory pressure support of 6 cm H2O (ASV manual PSmin 6). Following the PSGs, patients were sent home with EncoreAnywhere and ASV with or without mandatory pressure support. Based on the initial PSG studies, CPAP improved but did not normalize the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), central apnea index (CAI), or hypopnea index (HI), as all remained elevated. Clinically significant reductions were noted after just one night of ASV and ASV manual (PSmin 6). After 3 months of ASV home use, the AHI, CAI, and obstructive apnea index (OAI) were significantly reduced when compared to baseline diagnostic levels and even when compared to respiratory disturbance indices with CPAP treatment. Initial and home use of ASV for 3 months resulted in significantly lower AHI, CAI, and OAI. This reduction attests to the efficacy of ASV treatment in chronic pain patients on high doses of opioids.Sleep And Breathing 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11325-015-1161-7 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sleep disturbance is commonly encountered amongst intensive care patients and has significant psychophysiological effects, which protract recovery and increases mortality. Bio-physiological monitoring of intensive care patients reveal alterations in sleep architecture, with reduced sleep quality and continuity. The etiological causes of sleep disturbance are considered to be multifactorial, although environmental stressors namely, noise, light and clinical care interactions have been frequently cited in both subjective and objective studies. As a result, interventions are targeted towards modifiable factors to ameliorate their impact. This paper reviews normal sleep physiology and the impact that sleep disturbance has on patient psychophysiological recovery, and the contribution that the clinical environment has on intensive care patients’ sleep.02/2015; 5(3). DOI:10.1186/s13613-015-0043-2
07/2014; 8(3):107-118. DOI:10.1177/2049463714525355