Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (sTREM-1) and procalcitonin (PCT) are often considered to be specific markers for infection. We evaluated plasma levels of sTREM-1 and PCT in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome but no sepsis. Noninfected patients undergoing elective heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 76) and patients admitted after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (n = 54) were followed up for 3 days. Patients with severe sepsis (n = 55) and healthy volunteers (n = 31) were included as positive and negative controls, respectively. Plasma levels of PCT were higher in sepsis patients than in patients who survived after cardiac arrest or after heart surgery. In contrast, peak plasma levels of sTREM-1 in heart surgery and in cardiac arrest patients overlapped with those measured in patients with sepsis. Both sTREM-1 and PCT were significantly higher in cardiac arrest patients who died of refractory shock than in those who died of neurological failure or survived without major neurological damage. In the cardiac arrest patients with refractory shock, sTREM-1 and PCT levels were similar to those in the patients with severe sepsis. In conclusion, sTREM-1 and PCT are not specific for infection and can increase markedly in acute inflammation without infection.
"This finding confirmed that sTREM-1 is a reliable biomarker for bacterial infection. However, other studies argue that sTREM-1 is of no value for infection diagnosis [42-44]. Some experts have suggested that CRP and PCT levels are more sensitive than sTREM-1 as biomarkers for the diagnosis of bacterial infection [45,46]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to explore the diagnostic value of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (sTREM-1), procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels for differentiating sepsis from SIRS, identifying new fever caused by bacteremia, and assessing prognosis when new fever occurred.
We enrolled 144 intensive care unit (ICU) patients: 60 with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and 84 with sepsis complicated by new fever at more than 48 h after ICU admission. Serum sTREM-1, PCT, and CRP levels were measured on the day of admission and at the occurrence of new fever (>38.3°C) during hospitalization. Based on the blood culture results, the patients were divided into a blood culture-positive bacteremia group (33 patients) and blood culture-negative group (51 patients). Based on 28-day survival, all patients, both blood culture-positive and -negative, were further divided into survivor and nonsurvivor groups.
On ICU day 1, the sepsis group had higher serum sTREM-1, PCT, and CRP levels compared with the SIRS group (P <0.05). The areas under the curve (AUC) for these indicators were 0.868 (95% CI, 0.798-0.938), 0.729 (95% CI, 0.637-0.821), and 0.679 (95% CI, 0.578-0.771), respectively. With 108.9 pg/ml as the cut-off point for serum sTREM-1, sensitivity was 0.83 and specificity was 0.81. There was no statistically significant difference in serum sTREM-1 or PCT levels between the blood culture-positive and -negative bacteremia groups with ICU-acquired new fever. However, the nonsurvivors in the blood culture-positive bacteremia group had higher levels of serum sTREM-1 and PCT (P <0.05), with a prognostic AUC for serum sTREM-1 of 0.868 (95% CI, 0.740-0.997).
Serum sTREM-1, PCT, and CRP levels each have a role in the early diagnosis of sepsis. Serum sTREM-1, with the highest sensitivity and specificity of all indicators studied, is especially notable. sTREM-1, PCT, and CRP levels are of no use in determining new fever caused by bacteremia in ICU patients, but sTREM-1 levels reflect the prognosis of bacteremia.
ClinicalTrial.gov identifier NCT01410578.
"A recent study has shown that PCT serum levels were significantly higher in cardiac arrest patients who died of refractory shock than in those who died of neurological failure or survive. There are not references in the literature about the correlation of both, PCT and CRP, and mortality after cardiac arrest in children. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Procalcitonin (PCT) and C reactive protein (CRP) have been used as infection parameters. PCT increase correlates with the infection's severity, course, and mortality. Post-cardiocirculatory arrest syndrome may be related to an early systemic inflammatory response, and may possibly be associated with an endotoxin tolerance. Our objective was to report the time profile of PCT and CRP levels after paediatric cardiac arrest and to assess if they could be use as markers of immediate survival.
A retrospective observational study set in an eight-bed PICU of a university hospital was performed during a period of two years. Eleven children younger than 14 years were admitted in the PICU after a cardiac arrest. PCT and CRP plasma concentrations were measured within the first 12 and 24 hours of admission.
In survivors, PCT values increased 12 hours after cardiac arrest without further increase between 12 and 24 hours. In non survivors, PCT values increased 12 hours after cardiac arrest with further increase between 12 and 24 hours. Median PCT values (range) at 24 hours after cardiac arrest were 22.7 ng/mL (0.2 - 41.0) in survivors vs. 205.5 ng/mL (116.6 - 600.0) in non survivors (p < 0.05). CRP levels were elevated in all patients, survivors and non-survivors, at 12 and 24 hours without differences between both groups.
Measurement of PCT during the first 24 hours after paediatric cardiac arrest could serve as marker of mortality.
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