Article

Liking vs. wanting food: importance for human appetite control and weight regulation.

Biopsychology Group, Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews (Impact Factor: 10.28). 02/2007; 31(7):987-1002. DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2007.03.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Current train of thought in appetite research is favouring an interest in non-homeostatic or hedonic (reward) mechanisms in relation to overconsumption and energy balance. This tendency is supported by advances in neurobiology that precede the emergence of a new conceptual approach to reward where affect and motivation (liking and wanting) can be seen as the major force in guiding human eating behaviour. In this review, current progress in applying processes of liking and wanting to the study of human appetite are examined by discussing the following issues: How can these concepts be operationalised for use in human research to reflect the neural mechanisms by which they may be influenced? Do liking and wanting operate independently to produce functionally significant changes in behaviour? Can liking and wanting be truly experimentally separated or will an expression of one inevitably contain elements of the other? The review contains a re-examination of selected human appetite research before exploring more recent methodological approaches to the study of liking and wanting in appetite control. In addition, some theoretical developments are described in four diverse models that may enhance current understanding of the role of these processes in guiding ingestive behaviour. Finally, the implications of a dual process modulation of food reward for weight gain and obesity are discussed. The review concludes that processes of liking and wanting are likely to have independent roles in characterising susceptibility to weight gain. Further research into the dissociation of liking and wanting through implicit and explicit levels of processing would help to disclose the relative importance of these components of reward for appetite control and weight regulation.

1 Bookmark
 · 
159 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effect of a high (chocolate) versus low fat/sugar (chow) food on a conditioned-place-preference (CPP) task was evaluated in marmoset monkeys. Anxiety-related behaviors and cortisol levels before and after the CPP task were also measured. Subjects were habituated to a two-compartment CPP box and then, on alternate days, had access to only one compartment during daily 15-min conditionings, for a total of 14 trials. Marmosets were provisioned with Chocolate Chips in the CC-paired compartment on odd-numbered trials and standard Chow in the CW-paired compartment on even-numbered trials. They were then tested for preferring the CC-paired context after a 24-h interval. During the conditioning, a significantly greater amount (in kcal/trial) of chocolate was consumed than chow, yet the foraging pattern of both food types was similar. On the test trial, the time spent in the CC-paired context increased significantly compared to pre-CPP levels, yet this response was not readily predicted by baseline behavioral or cortisol levels. Also, the chocolate CPP response was positively correlated with foraging time, rather than the amount of calories consumed. The sudden absence of the food increased exploration, while the chocolate CPP effect was associated with vigilance - both anxiety-related behaviors in marmosets. This behavioral profile occurred regardless of any concomitant change or correlation with cortisol. Therefore, the high fat/sugar food was more prone to be overly consumed by the marmosets, to induce a CPP response and to lead to anxiety-related behavior in its absence. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Physiology & Behavior 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.11.065 · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hunger motivates people to consume food, for which finding and acquiring food is a prerequisite. We test whether the acquisition component spills over to nonfood objects: Are hungry people more likely to acquire objects that cannot satisfy their hunger? Five laboratory and field studies show that hunger increases the accessibility of acquisition-related concepts and the intention to acquire not only food but also nonfood objects. Moreover, people act on this intention and acquire more nonfood objects (e.g., binder clips) when they are hungry, both when these items are freely available and when they must be paid for. However, hunger does not influence how much they like nonfood objects. We conclude that a basic biologically based motivation can affect substantively unrelated behaviors that cannot satisfy the motivation. This presumably occurs because hunger renders acquisition-related concepts and behaviors more accessible, which influences decisions in situations to which they can be applied.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2015; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1417712112 · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bariatric surgery continues to be remarkably efficient in treating obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and a debate has started whether it should remain the last resort only or also be used for the prevention of metabolic diseases. Intense research efforts in humans and rodent models are underway to identify the critical mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects with a view towards non-surgical treatment options. This non-systematic review summarizes and interprets some of this literature, with an emphasis on changes in the controls of appetite. Contrary to earlier views, surgery-induced reduction of energy intake and subsequent weight loss appear to be the main drivers for rapid improvements of glycaemic control. The mechanisms responsible for suppression of appetite, particularly in the face of the large weight loss, are not well understood. Although a number of changes in food choice, taste functions, hedonic evaluation, motivation and self-control have been documented in both humans and rodents after surgery, their importance and relative contribution to diminished appetite has not yet been demonstrated. Furthermore, none of the major candidate mechanisms postulated in mediating surgery-induced changes from the gut and other organs to the brain, such as gut hormones and sensory neuronal pathways, have been confirmed yet. Future research efforts should focus on interventional rather than descriptive approaches in both humans and rodent models. © 2015 World Obesity.
    Obesity Reviews 02/2015; 16 Suppl 1:77-90. DOI:10.1111/obr.12258 · 7.86 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
53 Downloads
Available from
May 28, 2014