Liking vs. wanting food: Importance for human appetite control and weight regulation

Biopsychology Group, Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews (Impact Factor: 8.8). 02/2007; 31(7):987-1002. DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2007.03.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Current train of thought in appetite research is favouring an interest in non-homeostatic or hedonic (reward) mechanisms in relation to overconsumption and energy balance. This tendency is supported by advances in neurobiology that precede the emergence of a new conceptual approach to reward where affect and motivation (liking and wanting) can be seen as the major force in guiding human eating behaviour. In this review, current progress in applying processes of liking and wanting to the study of human appetite are examined by discussing the following issues: How can these concepts be operationalised for use in human research to reflect the neural mechanisms by which they may be influenced? Do liking and wanting operate independently to produce functionally significant changes in behaviour? Can liking and wanting be truly experimentally separated or will an expression of one inevitably contain elements of the other? The review contains a re-examination of selected human appetite research before exploring more recent methodological approaches to the study of liking and wanting in appetite control. In addition, some theoretical developments are described in four diverse models that may enhance current understanding of the role of these processes in guiding ingestive behaviour. Finally, the implications of a dual process modulation of food reward for weight gain and obesity are discussed. The review concludes that processes of liking and wanting are likely to have independent roles in characterising susceptibility to weight gain. Further research into the dissociation of liking and wanting through implicit and explicit levels of processing would help to disclose the relative importance of these components of reward for appetite control and weight regulation.

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    • "Therefore, ingestion of palatable food, instead of terminating food intake, leads to a maintained drive to eat, with continued eating due to reward rather than energy deficit (Finlayson et al., 2007). Overeating then becomes a possibility (Berthoud, 2006; Blundell & Macdiarmid, 1997). "
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    ABSTRACT: Green-plant membranes, thylakoids, have previously been found to increase postprandial release of the satiety hormone GLP-1, implicated in reward signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate how treatment with a single dose of thylakoids before breakfast affects homeostatic as well as hedonic hunger, measured as wanting and liking for palatable food (VAS). We also examined whether treatment effects were correlated to scores for eating behavior. Compared to placebo, intake of thylakoids significantly reduced hunger (21% reduction, p<0.05), increased satiety (14% increase, p<0.01), reduced cravings for all snacks and sweets during the day (36% reduction, p<0.05), as well as cravings for salty (30%, p<0.01); sweet (38%, p<0.001); and sweet-and-fat (36%, p<0.05) snacks, respectively, and decreased subjective liking for sweet (28% reduction, p<0.01). The treatment effects on wanting all snacks, sweet-and-fat snacks in particular, were positively correlated to higher emotional eating scores (p<0.01). The treatment effect of thylakoids on scores for wanting and liking were correlated to a reduced intake by treatment (p<0.01 respectively), even though food intake was not affected significantly. In conclusion, thylakoids may be used as a food supplement to reduce hedonic hunger, associated with overeating and obesity. Individuals scoring higher for emotional eating behavior may have enhanced treatment effect on cravings for palatable food. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Appetite 04/2015; 401. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2015.04.051 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    • "For example, Biological Psychiatry has dedicated its May 2013 special issue to FA and its theoretical relationship with drug addictions. Animal (Heyne et al., 2009; Sampey et al., 2011) and human (Berner et al., 2012; Finlayson et al., 2007) theoretical models of FA and overeating have emerged, raising further interrogations on the validity of the issue. Concerns and controversy arise with 1) the definition of FA as a SUD, as various lines of results in the past decade have investigated this concept under different names and clinical criteria and with 2) its level of relevance and causality in the development and maintenance of obesity. "
    Neuropharmacology 10/2014; 85:81-90. · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    • "positive emotional reactions that play a major role in overeating and obesity (Fulton, 2010; Avena et al., 2013; Bongers et al., 2013; Sinha and Jastreboff, 2013; Yau and Potenza, 2013). Theoretical models support food addiction because highly palatable food activates reward pathways that lead to human and animal obesity (Finlayson et al., 2007; Berner et al., 2008; Heyne et al., 2009; Davis et al., 2011; Sampey et al., 2011; Akubuiro et al., 2013; Davis, 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.
    Frontiers in Psychology 09/2014; 5:925. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00925 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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