This preliminary study sought to determine whether using 1500/1200mg of glucosamine hydrochloride and chondroitin sulfate (GH/CS) is effective, both separately and combined with exercise, compared to a placebo plus exercise program in improving physical function, pain, strength, balance, and mobility in older adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA).
This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial lasted 12 months. Participants included 89 older adults (age>/=50 years) with knee OA randomized to either GH/CS or placebo group. Phase I was a 6-month trial comparing the effects of assignment to either GH/CS or placebo. Phase II added 6 months of exercise for both groups. The primary outcome measure was Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) function, and secondary outcome measures included WOMAC pain, 6-min walk, balance, and knee strength.
Of the 89 randomized participants, 72 (81%) completed the study. The median pill compliance was 94% and 95% in Phase I, and, in Phase II, 97% and 91% for the GH/CS and placebo groups, respectively. Median exercise compliance during Phase II was 77% for the GH/CS group and 78% for the placebo group. WOMAC function and pain did not differ significantly between the groups at 6- or 12-month follow-up. There were also no significant differences between the groups in 6-min walk or knee strength; however, balance was better in the placebo group with approximately a 10% difference compared to the GH/CS group.
The GH/CS group was not superior to the placebo group in function, pain, or mobility after both phases of the intervention (pill only and pill plus exercise).
" longer dosing regimens . One can try to continue glucosa - mine supplementation until return to play . 3 . As in our study , glucosamine was not found to be effective in studies in which the exercise therapy was combined with glucosamine administration ( Durmus , Alayli , Aliyazicioglu , Buyukakıncak , & Canturk , 2013 ; Kawasaki et al . , 2008 ; Messier et al . , 2007 ) . The potential usefulness of glucosamine may not be visible , since it may be masked behind the therapeutic efficacy of rehabilitation exercises . In other words , the positive contributions of rehabilitation may be far ahead of the benefit of glucosamine . 4 . The good results of glucosamine were reported in elderly patients who hav"
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although glucosamine is commonly consumed by athletes, its effectiveness in sports injuries is still under debate. We aimed to investigate the effects of glucosamine to the rehabilitation outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructed athletes. Glucosamine-sulfate (1000 mg daily, for 8 weeks) was administered to half of the cohort of 30 male athletes, the other half used a placebo. Both groups received the same rehabilitation protocol. Knee pain and functions were evaluated by a visual analogue scale (VAS), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm scores before and after oral administration. Additionally, an isokinetic test was performed after the administration period. The scores revealed significant improvements in both groups after 8 weeks, but no significant difference was detected between groups in any of the parameters. Glucosamine supplementation did not improve the rehabilitation outcomes of athletes after ACL reconstruction. This is the first study investigating this topic. Further studies will help to obtain clear evidence about glucosamine efficacy on ACL injured or ACL reconstructed athletes.
Research in Sports Medicine 01/2015; 23(1):14-26. DOI:10.1080/15438627.2014.975809 · 1.70 Impact Factor
"Because of the growing number of people and animals suffering from OA and the severe side effects of COX inhibitors, there is a great need for safer medications to alleviate the symptoms of arthritis. In the recent past, nutraceuticals, such as glucosamine and chondroitin have gained enormous popularity for their anti-arthritic use in humans and animals, but their effect is insignificant (Reginster et al., 2001; Goggs et al., 2005; Neil et al., 2005; Clegg et al., 2006; McCarthy et al., 2006; Messier et al., 2007; Lee et al., 2010; Wandel et al., 2010). Recently, we have demonstrated that undenatured type-II collagen (UC-II) from chicken sternum markedly reduced pain in dogs and thereby improved their quality of life (Deparle et al., 2005; D'Altilio et al., 2007; Peal et al., 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The investigation was conducted on client-owned moderately arthritic dogs with two objectives: (i) to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of type-II collagen (UC-II) alone or in combination with glucosamine hydrochloride (GLU) and chondroitin sulphate (CHO), and (ii) to determine their tolerability and safety. Dogs in four groups (n = 7-10), were treated daily for a period of 150 days with placebo (Group-I), 10 mg active UC-II (Group-II), 2000 mg GLU + 1600 mg CHO (Group-III), and UC-II + GLU + CHO (Group-IV). On a monthly basis, dogs were evaluated for observational pain (overall pain, pain upon limb manipulation, and pain after physical exertion) using different numeric scales. Pain level was also measured objectively using piezoelectric sensor-based GFP for peak vertical force and impulse area. Dogs were also examined every month for physical, hepatic (ALP, ALT and bilirubin) and renal (BUN and creatinine) functions. Based on observations, significant (p < 0.05) reduction in pain was noted in Group-II, III, and IV dogs. Using GFP, significant increases in peak vertical force (N/kg body wt) and impulse area (N s/kg body wt), indicative of a decrease in arthritis associated pain, were observed in Group-II dogs only. None of the dogs in any group showed changes in physical, hepatic or renal functions. In conclusion, based on GFP data, moderately arthritic dogs treated with UC-II (10 mg) showed a marked reduction in arthritic pain with maximum improvement by day 150. UC-II, GLU and CHO operate through different mechanisms of action, and were well tolerated over a period of 150 days.
"Other differences between studies include the GS preparation used. The bioavailability of GS products can affect the rate that the ingested GS reaches the target tissue to evoke metabolic changes in the articular cartilage . This is the first time that the benefits of GS have been shown in a relatively short six-week period. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Management of osteoarthritis (OA) includes the use of non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies. Although walking is commonly recommended for reducing pain and increasing physical function in people with OA, glucosamine sulphate has also been used to alleviate pain and slow the progression of OA. This study evaluated the effects of a progressive walking program and glucosamine sulphate intake on OA symptoms and physical activity participation in people with mild to moderate hip or knee OA.
Thirty-six low active participants (aged 42 to 73 years) were provided with 1500 mg glucosamine sulphate per day for 6 weeks, after which they began a 12-week progressive walking program, while continuing to take glucosamine. They were randomized to walk 3 or 5 days per week and given a pedometer to monitor step counts. For both groups, step level of walking was gradually increased to 3000 steps/day during the first 6 weeks of walking, and to 6000 steps/day for the next 6 weeks. Primary outcomes included physical activity levels, physical function (self-paced step test), and the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index for pain, stiffness and physical function. Assessments were conducted at baseline and at 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-week follow-ups. The Mann Whitney Test was used to examine differences in outcome measures between groups at each assessment, and the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test was used to examine differences in outcome measures between assessments.
During the first 6 weeks of the study (glucosamine supplementation only), physical activity levels, physical function, and total WOMAC scores improved (P < 0.05). Between the start of the walking program (Week 6) and the final follow-up (Week 24), further improvements were seen in these outcomes (P < 0.05) although most improvements were seen between Weeks 6 and 12. No significant differences were found between walking groups.
In people with hip or knee OA, walking a minimum of 3000 steps (approximately 30 minutes), at least 3 days/week, in combination with glucosamine sulphate, may reduce OA symptoms. A more robust study with a larger sample is needed to support these preliminary findings.
Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN012607000159459.
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