Scent marking behavior in male C57BL/6J mice: sexual and developmental determination.

Pacific Bioscience Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1993 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.
Behavioural Brain Research (Impact Factor: 3.33). 09/2007; 182(1):73-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2007.05.007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The present study investigated urinary scent marking behavior in male C57BL/6J (C57) mice as olfactory social signaling. In Experiment 1, when compared scent marking toward adult males, C57 males showed substantial scent marking toward CD-1 males and even toward the odor alone of CD-1 males, but not toward C57 males. Experiment 2 explored scent marking in C57 males of different ages to males and females, and juveniles and adults of the same strain. C57 males deposited more marks than control conditions only toward an adult C57 female when tested at 100 days of age, but not at 60 days of age. Development of urine marking behavior was investigated in C57 males at the ages of 30, 60, 90, and 120 days in Experiment 3. When tested alone (control) or confronted with a C57 male, C57 males showed diminished scent marks throughout development. Compared to controls, marking toward a CD-1 male increased after the age of 60 days, while marks toward an adult female showed significant increases after the age of 90 days. This difference in scent marking depending on the sex of the stimulus animal is likely to be associated with development of sexual behavior, in which males need to set up territories against other males prior to advertising to females. Although highly inbred strains have similar odor components, C57 males are able to detect and deposit urine marks after puberty as social communication depending on age, sex, and genetic differences in the opponents.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, we assessed the changes in bisphenol A (BPA) levels in saliva and urine after placing lingual bonded retainers. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to examine the BPA levels in the saliva and urine samples collected from 22 volunteers who received a lingual bonded retainer on their mandibular dentition. Samples were collected immediately before placement and 30 minutes, 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after placement. The time elapsed after placement, type of resin composite (nanohybrid filled flowable resin or conventional hybrid resin), surface prophylaxis, age, and sex were evaluated for their effects on the BPA levels. The only significant high level of BPA was observed in the saliva collected just after placement of the lingual bonded retainer. Age and sex did not affect the BPA levels. Subjects in the flowable resin group had lower BPA levels than those in the conventional hybrid resin group; pumice prophylaxis decreased the level of BPA released from the conventional hybrid resin at the immediate time point. The salivary BPA level (maximum, 20.889 ng/mL) detected in the samples collected just after placement was far lower than the reference daily intake dose. Accordingly, the potential toxicity of BPA from placing lingual bonded retainer might be negligible. On the other hand, because the health-effective amount of BPA is controversial, BPA release should be minimized.
    American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 12/2011; 140(6):779-89. · 1.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Olfaction is a major sensory element in intraspecies recognition and communication in mice. The present study investigated scent marking behaviors of males of the highly inbred C57BL/6J (C57) strain in order to evaluate the ability of these behaviors to provide clear and consistent measures of social familiarity and response to social signals. C57 males engage in scent marking when placed in a chamber with a wire mesh partition separating them from a conspecific. Male mice (C57 or outbred CD-1 mice) showed rapid habituation of scent marking (decreased marking over trials) with repeated exposure at 24-h intervals, to a stimulus animal of the C57 or CD-1 strains, or to an empty chamber. Subsequent exposure to a genetically different novel mouse (CD-1 after CD-1 exposure, or CD-1 after C57 exposure) or to a novel context (different shaped chamber) produced recovery of marking, while responses to a novel but genetically identical mouse (C57 after C57 exposure) or to the empty chamber did not. This finding demonstrated that male mice differentiate familiar and novel conspecifics as expressed by habituation and recovery of scent marking, but neither C57 or CD-1 mice can differentiate new vs. familiar C57 males; likely due to similarities in their odor patterns. The data also indicate that scent marking can differentiate novel from familiar contexts.
    Behavioural Brain Research 07/2008; 190(1):97-104. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Whether from endogenous or exogenous sources, 17β-estradiol (E2) has very powerful influences over mammalian female reproductive physiology and behavior. Given its highly lipophilic nature and low molecular mass, E2 readily enters excretions and can be absorbed from exogenous sources via nasal, cutaneous, and other modes of exposure. Indeed, systemic injection of tritiated estradiol (3H-E2) into a male mouse or bat has been shown to produce significant levels of radioactivity in the reproductive tissues and brain of cohabiting female conspecifics. Bioactive E2 and other steroids are naturally found in male mouse urine and other excretions, and males actively direct their urine at proximate females. Very low doses of E2 can mimic the Bruce effect (disruption of peri-implantation pregnancy by novel males), the Vandenbergh effect (early reproductive maturation induced by novel males), and male-induced estrus and ovulation. Males’ capacities to induce the Bruce and Vandenbergh effects can both be diminished by manipulations that reduce their urinary E2. Uterine dynamics during the Bruce and Vandenbergh effects are consistent with the actions of E2. Collectively, these data demonstrate a critical role of male-sourced E2 in these major mammalian pheromonal effects.
    Hormones and Behavior 01/2014; · 3.74 Impact Factor


Available from
Jun 6, 2014