The role of isolated gastrocnemius and combined Achilles contractures in the flatfoot.
ABSTRACT In the absence of bony deformity, ankle equinus is generally the result of shortening within the gastrocnemius-soleus complex. Restriction of ankle dorsiflexion as a proxy for equinus contracture has been linked to increased mechanical strains and resultant foot and ankle pathology for a long time. This entity has many known causes, and data suggest it can manifest as either an isolated gastrocnemius or combined (Achilles) contracture. Numerous disorders of the foot and ankle have been linked with such "equinus disease", and although some of these relationships remain controversial, a reasonably convincing relationship between equinus contracture and the development of flatfoot exists. What is still perhaps most misunderstood is the temporal association between these two pathologies, and hence higher levels of evidence are needed in the future to define more precisely the interplay between flatfoot deformity and gastrocnemius-soleus tightness.
Article: WALKING PATTERNS OF NORMAL MEN.The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 04/1964; 46:335-60. · 3.23 Impact Factor
- The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 04/1964; 46:361-82. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recurrent ulceration following transmetatarsal amputation commonly results from hypertrophic bone formation or equinus deformity. In the current study, 31 diabetic patients underwent 33 Achilles tendon procedures for recurrent ulcerations at the distal stump of their transmetatarsal amputation. Primary healing was achieved in 21 procedures (64%) and secondary healing in 9 procedures (27%) for an overall healing rate of 91%. Two procedures failed to resolve the original ulceration (6%). The average follow-up examination was 27 months. The authors conclude that Achilles tendon procedures are an effective means of managing ulcerations in transmetatarsal amputation feet exhibiting an equinus deformity.Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association 03/1993; 83(2):96-100. · 0.77 Impact Factor