In the absence of bony deformity, ankle equinus is generally the result of shortening within the gastrocnemius-soleus complex. Restriction of ankle dorsiflexion as a proxy for equinus contracture has been linked to increased mechanical strains and resultant foot and ankle pathology for a long time. This entity has many known causes, and data suggest it can manifest as either an isolated gastrocnemius or combined (Achilles) contracture. Numerous disorders of the foot and ankle have been linked with such "equinus disease", and although some of these relationships remain controversial, a reasonably convincing relationship between equinus contracture and the development of flatfoot exists. What is still perhaps most misunderstood is the temporal association between these two pathologies, and hence higher levels of evidence are needed in the future to define more precisely the interplay between flatfoot deformity and gastrocnemius-soleus tightness.
"Many researchers and clinicians continue to support the same baseline interventions such as ice and restriction of sports. The effectiveness of additional treatment options such as taping, heel lifts and orthotics may be based on the supposition  that calcaneal apophysitis is the result of either an increased tractional pull at the calcaneal apophysis or from increased impact forces at the plantar surface of the heel. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Calcaneal apophysitis, also commonly known as sever’s disease, is a condition seen in children usually aged between 8–15 years. Conservative therapies, such as taping, heel lifts and orthotic intervention are accepted management practices for calcaneal apophysitis, though there is very little high quality research examining the efficacy of such treatment modalities. Previous narrative literature reviews and opinion pieces provide some evidence for the use of heel raises or orthoses. The aim of this manuscript was to complete a systemic review on the treatment options for calcaneal apophysitis as measured by pain reduction and maintenance of physical activity.
A search strategy completed by two reviewers examined nine databases from inception to May 2012. Search terms included heel pain, children, adolescent, calcaneal apophysitis, sever’s disease, treatment, and management (full text publications, human studies). Systematic reviews, randomised control trials, case series, and case studies were included. The reference lists of the selected articles were also examined. The methodology, quality and risk of bias was examined and assessed using the PEDro scale.
Nine articles were retrieved including three clinical trials involving randomisation, two case series, two retrospective case reviews, and two case reports. Effect size calculations and a meta analysis were unable to be completed due to the limited data reported within the literature. Numerous treatment options were reported throughout the literature, though few were examined against a control or alternate treatment option in well-designed trials. The limited evidence indicated that orthoses provided greater short-term pain relief than heel raises. Health practitioners should view these results with caution, as there were apparent methodological problems with the employed study design and limited follow-up of participants.
There is limited evidence to support the use of heel raises and orthoses for children who have heel pain related to calcaneal apophysitis. Further research is needed to generate higher quality evidence with larger sample sizes, and validated measures of pain and function to establish effective treatment approaches for children with calcaneal apophysitis.
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 05/2013; 6(1):16. DOI:10.1186/1757-1146-6-16 · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional target association and tracking techniques such as
PDA and JPDA have very fine performance when the measurement acquired
from sensors are perfect. However, when jamming and stealth techniques
are widely used, it is very difficult for sensors to gain perfect
measurements. Though a single sensor in a distributed sensors system
might fail to acquire continually perfect measurements of low-RCS
(stealth) targets under jamming environment, the distributed sensors
system might gain relatively perfect measurements by integrating
measurement hits or fractional trajectories of targets from every sensor
in the system. The paper discusses association and tracking techniques
under the circumstances mentioned above. Special attention is paid to
track initiation and data association. Monte Carlo simulation test
results are also presented in the paper
Aerospace and Electronics Conference, 1997. NAECON 1997., Proceedings of the IEEE 1997 National; 08/1997
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is essential to understand the nature of charge trapping sites to control space charge for developing better insulation materials and insulation design. Recent developments in space charge probing techniques have enabled the direct and quantitative observation of space charge distribution and dynamics. This paper briefly describes the knowledge that was available by conventional techniques and what has become possible by the recent diagnostic developments. It stresses how these advances have led to the pursuit of space charge control by molecular design.
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