Clinicopathologic features and long-term outcomes of 293 phyllodes tumors of the breast.

Breast Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, MRI-1026, New York, New York 10021, USA.
Annals of Surgical Oncology (Impact Factor: 3.94). 10/2007; 14(10):2961-70. DOI: 10.1245/s10434-007-9439-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Phyllodes tumors (PT) are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast with unpredictable behavior. We reviewed our single institution experience with PT over 51 years to identify factors predictive of local recurrence (LR) and metastasis.
From 1954 to 2005, a total of 352 cases of PT were identified; 293 had follow-up. All available pathology slides (90%) were rereviewed for margins, borders, fibroproliferation in the surrounding breast tissue, stromal pattern, stromal cellularity, frequency of mitoses, and necrosis.
All cases occurred in women, with a median age of 42, with 203 originally categorized as benign and 90 as malignant. Median follow-up was 7.9 years. A total of 35 patients developed LR at a median of 2 years. In univariate analyses, a higher actuarial LR rate was associated with positive margins (P = .04), fibroproliferation (P = .001), and necrosis (P = .006). PT classified as malignant did not have a higher risk of LR (P = .79). Five patients developed distant disease at a median of 1.2 years. These patients constituted 71% of the seven patients who had uniformly aggressive pathologic features, including large tumor size (>or=7.0 cm), infiltrative borders, marked stromal overgrowth, marked stromal cellularity, high mitotic count, and necrosis.
Positive margins, fibroproliferation in the surrounding breast tissue, and necrosis are associated with a marked increase in LR rates. Efforts should be made to achieve negative surgical margins to reduce risk of LR. Death from PT is rare (2%), and only PT that demonstrate uniformly aggressive pathologic features seem to be associated with mortality.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Data from the literature suggests that the clinical picture of phyllodes tumor (PT) of the breast, as well as treatment options and perhaps therapy outcomes, have significantly changed. The aim of this work was to review these changes by analysis of consecutive patients with PT over a 55-year period at a single institution. Material and Methods From 1952 to 2007, 280 women with PT were treated surgically at the Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Institute of Oncology, Cancer Center in Cracow. Age, size of breast tumor, microscopic type, extent of surgery, and therapy outcomes were compared between 2 groups: 190 patients treated from 1952 to 1991 vs 90 patients treated from 1992 to 2007. Results The results show that the 1992-2007 group compared to the 1952-1991 included more patients <50 years of age, with tumor <5 cm in diameter, undergoing breast-conserving therapy, as well as no evidence of disease at 5-year survival had increased and this change was statistically significant. In addition, malignant PT cases had decreased in frequency. Conclusions The results of this study show that patients with PT are increasingly younger, the breast tumors at diagnosis are smaller, malignant PT is becoming less frequent, and BCT is now the treatment of choice. Most importantly, the general treatment outcomes are significantly better.
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    ABSTRACT: The local recurrence rate of phyllodes tumors of the breast varies widely among different subtypes, and distant metastasis is associated with poor survival. This study aimed to identify factors that are predictive of local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS) in patients with phyllodes tumors. Clinical data of all patients with a phyllodes tumor of the breast (n = 192) treated at our institution between March 1997 and December 2012 were reviewed. The Pearson Χ2 test was used to investigate the relationship between clinical features of patients and histotypes of tumors. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to identify factors that are predictive of LRFS, DMFS, and OS. In total, 31 (16.1%) patients developed local recurrence and 12 (6.3%) developed distant metastasis. For the patients who developed local recurrence, the median age at the diagnosis of primary tumor was 33 years (range, 17-56 years), and the median size of primary tumor was 6.0 cm (range, 0.8-18 cm). For patients who developed distant metastasis, the median age the diagnosis of primary tumor was 46 years (range, 24-68 years), and the median size of primary tumor was 5.0 cm (range, 0.8-18 cm). In univariate analysis, age, size, hemorrhage, and margin status were found to be predictive factors for LRFS (P = 0.009, 0.024, 0.004, and 0.001, respectively), whereas histotype, epithelial hyperplasia, margin status, and local recurrence were predictors of DMFS (P = 0.001, 0.007, 0.007, and <0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, independent prognostic factors for LRFS included age (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.045, P = 0.005), tumor size (HR = 2.668, P = 0.013), histotype (HR = 1.715, P = 0.017), and margin status (HR = 4.530, P< 0.001). Histotype (DMFS: HR = 4.409, P = 0.002; OS: HR = 4.194, P = 0.003) and margin status (DMFS: HR = 2.581, P = 0.013; OS: HR = 2.507, P = 0.020) were independent predictors of both distant metastasis and OS. In this cohort, younger age, a larger tumor size, a higher tumor grade, and positive margins were associated with lower rates of LRFS. Histotype and margin status were found to be independent predictors of distant metastasis and OS.
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    ABSTRACT: Phyllodes tumors are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms that account for less than 1% of all breast tumors and are typically found in middle-aged women. Phyllodes tumors that present with hypoglycemia are even rarer. No one morphologic finding is reliable in predicting the clinical behavior of this tumor. Surgery has been the primary mode of treatment to date. However, the extent of resection and the role of adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy are still controversial. Here, we present a challenging case of malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast associated with hypoglycemia, and review the literature regarding clinical findings, pathologic risk factors for recurrence, and treatment recommendations.
    Cancer Management and Research 01/2014; 6:467-73.