Physical activity and sports participation in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
ABSTRACT Regular physical activity is of great importance in the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We investigate here the levels of moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and participation in sporting activity in a sample of children and adolescents with T1DM and analyse whether they differed from healthy subjects. The family variables associated with MVPA or sports participation and the influence of exercise on metabolic parameters are also explored.
In this cross-sectional case control study, 138 children and adolescents with T1DM (of which 67 were boys, age 13.6+/-4.1 years; duration of diabetes 6.1+/-3.8 years) and 269 (of which 120 were boys) healthy controls were studied. Weekly levels of MVPA and sports participation were investigated using a questionnaire. Body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) values, plasma total cholesterol, serum triglycerides and the mean glycated haemoglobin (A1c) levels over the past year were assessed in T1DM subjects. MVPA scores in T1DM patients were lower than in controls (p=0.0004). MVPA was higher in boys than in girls, both in diabetic and control subjects; T1DM girls were less frequently engaged in MVPA than control girls. MVPA scores were significantly and independently correlated with sex, age and diabetic status. Lower triglyceride levels and fewer subjects with poor metabolic control were found more among physically active patients (MVPA>5 days/week) than in inactive patients (weekly MVPA=0). Sports participation was lower in T1DM patients than in controls (p=0.002) and was significantly and independently correlated with sex, father's education level and diabetic status. Triglyceride levels and the percentage of subjects with poor metabolic control were significantly lower in sports participants than in non-participants.
Children and adolescents with T1DM appeared to spend less time in physical activity than their non-diabetic peers. Regular physical activity was associated with better metabolic control and lipid profile. Adolescents, particularly the girls, tended to be less active. Further efforts should be made to motivate patients with type 1 diabetes.
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents the introduction and background to the Synchronous Unit Testing and Model Validation program in the WSCC. The disturbances of July 2<sup>nd</sup> and August 10<sup>th</sup>, 1996 in the Western Systems Coordinating Council (WSCC) have had a major impact on the Western Interconnection as well as the electric industry as a whole. The WSCC Modeling and Validation Work Group (M&VWG) and the Control Work Group (CWG) were tasked with developing guidelines for testing generators, excitation systems, power system stabilizers (PSS) and turbine governors for all units greater than 10 MW for: verification of reactive limits, proper performance of the dynamic control systems, and validation of the computer models used for stability analysis. Test guidelines were prepared to provide general information to WSCC Members for performance testing and model validation of the generating units' dynamic control and protection systems. The general information for preparing the guidelines was obtained from practices in the industry and also in published technical literaturePower Engineering Society 1999 Winter Meeting, IEEE; 01/1999
Conference Paper: Fuzzy coordinated control of a power unit[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper presents a systematic approach to implement a compensated multiloop coordinated control strategy using fuzzy systems, for fossil fuel power units undertaking wide-range load-following duties. It may be described as updating a conventional coordinated control strategy in two steps. First, simple PID-like fuzzy controllers substitute the conventional PID controllers. Their demonstrated robustness to variations of plant parameters allows improved regulation over a wide; operating range. Second, the effects of interaction among control loops, due to the nonlinear and coupling effects of process dynamics, are tackled by a MIMO fuzzy compensator, designed from plant input-output data. Simulation experiments demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the proposed approachPower Engineering Society 1999 Winter Meeting, IEEE; 01/1999
- Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 06/2007; 17(5):327–331. DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2007.03.001 · 3.88 Impact Factor