Association between testicular microlithiasis and primary malignancy of the testis: our experience and review of the literature.
ABSTRACT The aims of this study were to evaluate the association of testicular microlithiasis with testicular neoplasm, to assess the accuracy of ultrasonography (US) in comparison with histology in detecting microlithiasis, and to identify the prevalent cytohistological features that accompany testicular cancer.
Between 2004 and 2005, 14 patients were referred to us for US examination, 13 of whom underwent surgery for testicular cancer. Their age ranged from 19 to 43 years, except for one patient aged 60. US findings and histological examination were compared to assess the accuracy of US in detecting microlithiasis associated with testicular cancer.
In two patients (15.3%), microlithiasis had been detected in a previous US examination, and two patients (15.3%) had altered sperm function. At US examination, testicular cancer was associated with microlithiasis in seven out of 13 patients (53.8%) (the distribution pattern of microlithiasis was intranodular in two, perinodular in two and both intra-and perinodular in three), and colour-Doppler US showed perinodular and intranodular vascularity. Histological evaluation identified nine seminomas, two mixed germ-cell tumours, one embryonal carcinoma, one yolk-sac tumour and one benign Sertoli-cell tumour. In nine (69.2%) patients, microlithiasis was confirmed at histologic evaluation, and its distribution was intranodular in two, perinodular in five and both intra-and perinodular in two. Tubular hyalinisation was demonstrated in 12 out of 13 patients (92.3%).
Testicular microlithiasis and poor sperm function represent risk factors for testicular cancer: in our study, 30.6% of the patients who developed cancer presented these features. At US examination, testicular microlithiasis is often associated with testicular cancer (53.8%). A high accuracy has been demonstrated for US in detecting microlithiasis (53.8%) compared with histological evaluation (69.2%). At histology, tubular hyalinisation (92.3% of cases) is, with testicular microlithiasis, the most frequent finding in the parenchyma adjacent to testicular cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Organ-sparing approaches are currently practiced in urology for many malignancies. Partial orchiectomy of germ cell tumors (GCT) provides potential benefits over radical surgery by reducing the need for androgen substitution, lessening psychological stress, and preserving fertility, with a durable cure rate. Furthermore, many testicular lesions detected clinically or by ultrasonography will be benign, in which case radical orchiectomy represents overtreatment. Partial orchiectomy for benign lesions allows preservation of endocrine and exocrine function, and reduced risk of local recurrence. However, selection criteria are not clear and one must always be suspicious that a GCT might exist. Carcinoma in situ that remains in the salvaged testicle is a challenge to treat. Radiation therapy is an option, although there is a high chance that patients will subsequently require hormonal replacement. Partial orchiectomy should be undertaken only in selected patients--men with bilateral testicular cancer or GCT in a solitary testis--if the size and location of the mass are amenable to surgery. Informed patient consent discussing radical orchiectomy as the gold standard is mandatory, and discussion of the risks associated with CIS and its treatment, as well as the need for androgen supplementation are paramount. Alternative strategies of organ preservation, such as radiotherapy, HIFU and chemotherapy, might be appropriate treatment options in the future. However, the safety and efficacy of these procedures needs to be demonstrated in comparison with partial orchiectomy in larger and prospective studies with longer follow-up.Nature Reviews Urology 08/2010; 7(8):454-64. · 4.41 Impact Factor