Plectin-RACK1 (receptor for activated C kinase 1) scaffolding: a novel mechanism to regulate protein kinase C activity.
ABSTRACT Agonist-induced translocation of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes is mediated by receptors for the activated form of the kinase, shuttling it from one intracellular site to another and enhancing its catalytic activity. It is however unknown whether the receptors themselves are anchored to certain intracellular structures prior to their engagement with PKC. We show here sequestering of receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) to the cytoskeleton through the cytoskeletal linker protein plectin during the initial stages of cell adhesion. We found that upon PKC activation, RACK1 was released from the cytoskeleton and transferred to the detergent-soluble cell compartment, where it formed an inducible triple complex with one of the PKC isozymes, PKCdelta, and with plectin. In plectin-deficient cells the cytoskeleton-associated RACK1 fraction was reduced, and the protein was found predominantly at sites to which it normally translocated upon PKC activation. Concomitantly, dislocation of PKCdelta and elevated enzymatic activity were observed in these cells. PKCdelta was also more rapidly degraded, likely due to its overactivation. We propose a previously unrecognized function of plectin as cytoskeletal regulator of PKC signaling, and possibly other signaling events, through sequestration of the scaffolding protein RACK1.
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ABSTRACT: The plakin family consists of giant proteins involved in the cross-linking and organization of the cytoskeleton and adhesion complexes. They further modulate several fundamental biological processes, such as cell adhesion, migration, and polarization or signaling pathways. Inherited and acquired defects of plakins in humans and in animal models potentially lead to dramatic manifestations in the skin, striated muscles, and/or nervous system. These observations unequivocally demonstrate the key role of plakins in the maintenance of tissue integrity. Here we review the characteristics of the mammalian plakin members BPAG1 (bullous pemphigoid antigen 1), desmoplakin, plectin, envoplakin, epiplakin, MACF1 (microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1), and periplakin, highlighting their role in skin homeostasis and diseases.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 19 December 2013; doi:10.1038/jid.2013.498.Journal of Investigative Dermatology 12/2013; · 6.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cell migration is a multistep process which relies on the coordination of cytoskeletal structures in space and time. While the roles of actin and microtubules have been investigated in great details, the lack of inhibitors and visualizing tools and the large number of proteins forming intermediate filaments (IFs) have delayed the characterization of IF functions during migration. However, a large body of evidence has progressively pointed to changes in IF composition as an important parameter in the regulation of cell migratory properties both during development and tumor invasion. More recent in-depth analyses show that IFs are dynamically reorganized to participate, together with microfilaments and microtubules, to the key steps leading to cell migration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Current Opinion in Cell Biology 02/2015; 32C:102-112. · 8.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Focal adhesions are localized actin filament-anchoring signalling centres at the cell–extracellular matrix interface. The currently emerging view is that they fulfil an all-embracing coordinating function for the entire cytoskeleton. This review highlights the tight relationship between focal adhesions and the intermediate filament cytoskeleton. We summarize the accumulating evidence for direct binding of intermediate filaments to focal adhesion components and their mutual cross-talk through signalling molecules. Examples are presented to emphasize the high degree of complexity of these interactions equipping cells with a precisely controlled machinery for context-dependent adjustment of their biomechanical properties.Current Opinion in Cell Biology 02/2015; 32. · 8.74 Impact Factor