Cloning and functional characterization of the fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) gene from high erucic Crambe abyssinica cv. Prophet.
ABSTRACT A genomic fatty acid elongation 1 (FAE1) clone was isolated from Crambe abyssinica. The genomic clone corresponds to a 1521-bp open reading frame, which encodes a protein of 507 amino acids. In yeast cells expression of CrFAE led to production of new very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids such as eicosenoic (20:1(delta11)) and erucic (22:1(delta13)) acids. Seed-specific expression in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in up to a 12-fold increase in the proportion of erucic acid. On the other hand, in transgenic high-erucic Brassica carinata plants, the proportion of erucic acid was as high as 51.9% in the best transgenic line, a net increase of 40% compared to wild type. These results indicate that the CrFAE gene encodes a condensing enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of very long-chain fatty acids utilizing monounsaturated and saturated acyl substrates, with a strong capability for improving the erucic acid content.
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ABSTRACT: The seed oil of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) and other Limnanthes spp. is enriched in the unusual fatty acid Delta(5)-eicosenoic acid (20:1Delta(5)). This fatty acid has physical and chemical properties that make the seed oil of these plants useful for a number of industrial applications. An expressed sequence tag approach was used to identify cDNAs for enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of 20:1Delta(5)). By random sequencing of a library prepared from developing Limnanthes douglasii seeds, a class of cDNAs was identified that encode a homolog of acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) desaturases found in animals, fungi, and cyanobacteria. Expression of a cDNA for the L. douglasii acyl-CoA desaturase homolog in somatic soybean (Glycine max) embryos behind a strong seed-specific promoter resulted in the accumulation of Delta(5)-hexadecenoic acid to amounts of 2% to 3% (w/w) of the total fatty acids of single embryos. Delta(5)-Octadecenoic acid and 20:1Delta(5) also composed <1% (w/w) each of the total fatty acids of these embryos. In addition, cDNAs were identified from the L. douglasii expressed sequence tags that encode a homolog of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1), a beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase that catalyzes the initial step of very long-chain fatty acid synthesis. Expression of the L. douglassi FAE1 homolog in somatic soybean embryos was accompanied by the accumulation of C(20) and C(22) fatty acids, principally as eicosanoic acid, to amounts of 18% (w/w) of the total fatty acids of single embryos. To partially reconstruct the biosynthetic pathway of 20:1Delta(5) in transgenic plant tissues, cDNAs for the L. douglasii acyl-CoA desaturase and FAE1 were co-expressed in somatic soybean embryos. In the resulting transgenic embryos, 20:1Delta(5) and Delta(5)-docosenoic acid composed up to 12% of the total fatty acids.Plant physiology 09/2000; 124(1):243-51. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prevailing hypothesis on the biosynthesis of erucic acid in developing seeds is that oleic acid, produced in the plastid, is activated to oleoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) for malonyl-CoA-dependent elongation to erucic acid in the cytosol. Several in vivo-labeling experiments designed to probe and extend this hypothesis are reported here. To examine whether newly synthesized oleic acid is directly elongated to erucic acid in developing seeds of Brassica rapa L., embryos were labeled with [14C]acetate, and the ratio of radioactivity of carbon atoms C-5 to C-22 (de novo fatty acid synthesis portion) to carbon atoms C-1 to C-4 (elongated portion) of erucic acid was monitored with time. If newly synthesized 18:1 (oleate) immediately becomes a substrate for elongation to erucic acid, this ratio would be expected to remain constant with incubation time. However, if erucic acid is produced from a pool of preexisting oleic acid, the ratio of 14C in the 4 elongation carbons to 14C in the methyl-terminal 18 carbons would be expected to decrease with time. This labeling ratio decreased with time and, therefore, suggests the existence of an intermediate pool of 18:1, which contributes at least part of the oleoyl precursor for the production of erucic acid. The addition of 2-[3-chloro-5-(trifluromethyl)-2-pyridinyloxyphenoxy] propanoic acid, which inhibits the homodimeric acetyl-CoA carboxylase, severely inhibited the synthesis of [14C]erucic acid, indicating that essentially all malonyl-CoA for elongation of 18:1 to erucate was produced by homodimeric acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Both light and 2-[3-chloro-5-(trifluromethyl)-2-pyridinyloxyphenoxy]-propanoic acid increased the accumulation of [14C]18:1 and the parallel accumulation of [14C]phosphatidylcholine. Taken together, these results show an additional level of complexity in the biosynthesis of erucic acid.Plant physiology 10/1998; 118(1):183-90. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Flower pigmentation patterns were scored in 185 sense Chalcone synthase (Chs) transgenotes and 85 antisense Chs transgenotes; upon first flowering, 139 (75%) of sense transgenotes were found to be phenotypically altered, as were 70 (82%) of the antisense transgenotes. The observed patterns document the range of phenotypic variations that occur, as well as confirm and extend the finding that sense Chs constructs produce several types of morphology-based flower pigmentation patterns that antisense Chs constructs do not. Long-term monitoring for epigenetic variations in one population of 44 sense Chs transgenotes showed that 43 (98%) were capable of producing a cosuppression phenotype. The primary determinant of sense-specific patterns of cosuppression of Chs was found to be the repetitiveness and organization pattern of the transgene, not 'position effects' by, or 'readthrough' from, flanking plant DNA sequences. The degree of cosuppression observed in progeny of transgenotes carrying multiple, dispersed copies as compared to that observed with a single copy of the transgene suggests that sense cosuppression of Chs is subject to a transgene dosage effect.Plant Molecular Biology 09/1996; 31(5):957-73. · 3.52 Impact Factor