Use of methamphetamine by young people: is there reason for concern?

University of California, Los Angeles, Los Ángeles, California, United States
Addiction (Impact Factor: 4.6). 08/2007; 102(7):1021-2. DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.01899.x
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies on all types of illicit drug use among athletes are essential for both the sport community and drug control achievements. Here, we investigated the prevalence and associated factors of amphetamine use in body builders in Tehran, Iran, 2007. This study is a secondary analysis of a substance use survey done in 103 randomly selected gymnasia in Tehran (capital city of Iran). The survey was conducted from November 2007 to January 2008 and included 843 randomly selected bodybuilders (aged 40 years or less). By interviews via questionnaires the following data were obtained: age, job, marital status, education level, housing status, average monthly family income, number of family members, gymnasium area (m(2)), number of trainers, number of gymnasium members, initiation time (months), weekly duration of the sporting activity (h), monthly cost of the sporting activity, purpose of participating in sporting activity, and history of anabolic steroid and amphetamine use. One hundred twenty (13.3%) body builders reported a history of amphetamine use. According to the results of regression analysis, being married (risk ratio - RR = 0.540), and participating in body building to enhance self-esteem (RR = 0.423) or to enhance sport performance (RR = 0.545) had protective effects on amphetamine use. However, having university qualifications (RR = 1.843), using anabolic steroids (RR = 1.803) and participating in sport to maintain fitness (RR = 2.472) were linked to increased risk of amphetamine use. Well-educated bodybuilders were more likely to use amphetamines, and why this is so needs to be discovered. If further studies show that they are not aware of the dangers associated with amphetamine use, providing them with information should be considered.
    05/2012; 8(2):362-7. DOI:10.5114/aoms.2012.28566
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    ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine (MA) has neurotoxic effects on the adult human brain that can lead to deficits in behavior and cognition. However, relatively little research has examined the behavioral or neurotoxic effects of MA in adolescents. The rising rates of adolescent MA use make it imperative that we understand the long-term effects of MA exposure on the adolescent brain and how these effects may differ from those seen in adults. In this study, the long-term effects of MA exposure during early adolescence on behavior and the vasopressin system in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in late adolescent and adult male and female C57BL/6J mice were examined. MA exposure increased depression-like behavior in the Porsolt forced swim test in both late adolescent and adult male and female mice. Late adolescent male mice exposed to MA also showed a decrease in the number of vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus compared to sex-matched saline-treated controls. Thus, similar to humans exposed to MA during adolescence, mice exposed to MA during adolescence show increased depression-like behavior later in life. These changes in behavior may be related to MA-induced alterations in vasopressin and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, especially in males. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Developmental Neuroscience 03/2014; 36(2). DOI:10.1159/000360001 · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine (METH) use has increased substantially in the last 10 years and poses a serious health concern, especially for young populations. Drug abuse primarily begins during adolescence, when uninhibited and excessive and drug intake is a common occurrence; thus, understanding the developmental patterns of addiction during this critical period is an essential step in its prevention. In the present study, the effect of age on the vulnerability to METH abuse was examined using a rat model of bingeing (i.e., escalation). Adolescent and adult rats were compared during short (ShA, 2-h) and long-access (LgA, 6-h) to METH self-administration. On postnatal (PN) days 23 (adolescents) and 90 (adults), rats were implanted with i.v. catheters and trained to lever press for infusions of METH (0.05mg/kg) during 2-h sessions. Once the rats reached a steady rate of METH self-administration, they were divided into ShA or LgA groups and allowed to self-administer METH for 15 additional days. Results indicated that adolescent rats earned significantly more infusions than adults under the LgA condition, but the age groups did not differ during ShA. Adolescents, but not adults, also significantly increased (i.e., escalated) METH self-administration across the 15 days of testing under the LgA condition. Further analysis indicated excessive responding during infusions in the LgA METH-exposed adolescents compared to the other groups, suggesting elevated impulsivity or motivation for drug. These results demonstrate that adolescents are more vulnerable to the escalation of METH than adults during LgA.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 02/2012; 124(1-2):149-53. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.01.004 · 3.28 Impact Factor