Oxysterols enhance osteoblast differentiation in vitro and bone healing in vivo.
ABSTRACT Oxysterols, naturally occurring cholesterol oxidation products, can induce osteoblast differentiation. Here, we investigated short-term 22(S)-hydroxycholesterol + 20(S)-hydroxycholesterol (SS) exposure on osteoblastic differentiation of marrow stromal cells. We further explored oxysterol ability to promote bone healing in vivo. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA expression, mineralization, and Runx2 DNA binding activity. To explore the effects of osteogenic oxysterols in vivo, we utilized the critical-sized rat calvarial defect model. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds alone or coated with 140 ng (low dose) or 1400 ng (high dose) oxysterol cocktail were implanted into the defects. Rats were sacrificed at 6 weeks and examined by three-dimensional (3D) microcomputed tomography (microCT). Bone volume (BV), total volume (TV), and BV/TV ratio were measured. Culture exposure to SS for 10 min significantly increased ALP activity after 4 days, while 2 h exposure significantly increased mineralization after 14 days. Four-hour SS treatment increased OCN mRNA measured after 8 days and nuclear protein binding to an OSE2 site measured after 4 days. The calvarial defects showed slight bone healing in the control group. However, scaffolds adsorbed with low or high-dose oxysterol cocktail significantly enhanced bone formation. Histologic examination confirmed bone formation in the defect sites grafted with oxysterol-adsorbed scaffolds, compared to mostly fibrous tissue in control sites. Our results suggest that brief exposure to osteogenic oxysterols triggered events leading to osteoblastic cell differentiation and function in vitro and bone formation in vivo. These results identify oxysterols as potential agents in local and systemic enhancement of bone formation.
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ABSTRACT: Oxysterols comprise a very heterogeneous group derived from cholesterol through enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidation. Among them, 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) is one of the most important. It has potent effects in cell death processes, including cytoxicity and apoptosis induction. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells characterized by self-renewal and cellular differentiation capabilities. Very little is known about the effects of oxysterols in MSCs. Here, we describe the short-term cytotoxic effect of 7-ketocholesterol on MSCs derived from human adipose tissue. MSCs were isolated from adipose tissue obtained from two young, healthy women. After 24 h incubation with 7-KC, mitochondrial hyperpolarization was observed, followed by a slight increase in the level of apoptosis and changes in actin organization. Finally, the IC50 of 7-KC was higher in these cells than has been observed or described in other normal or cancer cell lines.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2014; · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effect of resveratrol on bone healing and its influence on the gene expression of osteogenic markers. Two calvarial defects were created and one screw-shaped titanium implant was inserted in the tibia of rats that were assigned to daily administration of placebo (control group, n = 15) or 10 mg/kg of resveratrol (RESV group, n = 15) for 30 days. The animals were then sacrificed. One of the calvarial defects was processed for histomorphometric analysis and the tissue relative to the other was collected for mRNA quantification of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, BMP-7, osteopontin (OPN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteoprotegrin (OPG), and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Implants were removed by applying a counter-torque force. Histomorphometric analysis revealed higher remaining defect in the calvarial defects of the control group than the RESV group (P = 0.026). Resveratrol increased the counter-torque values of implant removal when compared to control therapy (P = 0.031). Gene expression analysis showed a higher expression of BMP-2 (P = 0.011), BMP-7 (P = 0.049), and OPN (P = 0.002) genes in the RESV group than in the control group. In conclusion, resveratrol improved the repair of critical-sized bone defects and the biomechanical retention of implants. Indeed, this natural agent may up-regulate the gene expression of important osteogenic markers.International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 01/2014; · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxysterols (OHCs) are byproducts of cholesterol oxidation that are known to activate the Hedeghog (Hh) signaling pathway. While OHCs that incorporate hydroxyl groups throughout the scaffold are known, those that act as agonists of Hh signaling primarily contain a single hydroxyl on the alkyl side chain. We sought to further explore how side chain hydroxylation patterns affect oxysterol-mediated Hh activation, by performing a structure-activity relationship study on a series of synthetic OHCs. The most active analogue, 23(R)-OHC (35), demonstrated potent activation of Hh signaling in two Hh-dependent cell lines (EC50 values 0.54-0.65 μM). In addition, OHC 35 was approximately 3-fold selective for the Hh pathway as compared to the liver X receptor, a nuclear receptor that is also activated by endogenous OHCs. Finally, 35 induced osteogenic differentiation and osteoblast formation in cultured cells, indicating functional agonism of the Hh pathway.ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters 10/2012; 3(10):828-33. · 3.31 Impact Factor