Oxysterols enhance osteoblast differentiation in vitro and bone healing in vivo.
ABSTRACT Oxysterols, naturally occurring cholesterol oxidation products, can induce osteoblast differentiation. Here, we investigated short-term 22(S)-hydroxycholesterol + 20(S)-hydroxycholesterol (SS) exposure on osteoblastic differentiation of marrow stromal cells. We further explored oxysterol ability to promote bone healing in vivo. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA expression, mineralization, and Runx2 DNA binding activity. To explore the effects of osteogenic oxysterols in vivo, we utilized the critical-sized rat calvarial defect model. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds alone or coated with 140 ng (low dose) or 1400 ng (high dose) oxysterol cocktail were implanted into the defects. Rats were sacrificed at 6 weeks and examined by three-dimensional (3D) microcomputed tomography (microCT). Bone volume (BV), total volume (TV), and BV/TV ratio were measured. Culture exposure to SS for 10 min significantly increased ALP activity after 4 days, while 2 h exposure significantly increased mineralization after 14 days. Four-hour SS treatment increased OCN mRNA measured after 8 days and nuclear protein binding to an OSE2 site measured after 4 days. The calvarial defects showed slight bone healing in the control group. However, scaffolds adsorbed with low or high-dose oxysterol cocktail significantly enhanced bone formation. Histologic examination confirmed bone formation in the defect sites grafted with oxysterol-adsorbed scaffolds, compared to mostly fibrous tissue in control sites. Our results suggest that brief exposure to osteogenic oxysterols triggered events leading to osteoblastic cell differentiation and function in vitro and bone formation in vivo. These results identify oxysterols as potential agents in local and systemic enhancement of bone formation.
- SourceAvailable from: Moustapha Hassan[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The major oxysterols in human circulation are 7 alpha-, 27-, and (24S)-hydroxycholesterol. Two unique experiments were performed to elucidate their origin and kinetics. A volunteer was exposed to (18)O(2)-enriched air. A rapid incorporation of (18)O in both 7 alpha- and 27-hydroxycholesterol and disappearance of label after exposure were observed. The half-life was estimated to be less than 1 h. Incorporation of (18)O in (24S)-hydroxycholesterol was not significant. In the second experiment a volunteer was infused with liposomes containing 10 g of [(2)H(6)]cholesterol. This resulted in an enrichment of plasma cholesterol with (2)H of up to 13%, and less than 0.5% in cerebrospinal fluid cholesterol. The content of (2)H in circulating 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol remained approximately equal to that of plasma cholesterol and decreased with a half-life of about 13 days. The (2)H content of circulating 27-hydroxycholesterol was initially lower than that of cholesterol but in the last phase of the experiment it exceeded that of cholesterol. No significant incorporation of (2)H in (24S)-hydroxycholesterol was observed. It is evident that 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol must originate from a rapidly miscible pool, about 80% of 27-hydroxycholesterol from a more slowly exchangeable pool, and more than 90% of (24S)-hydroxycholesterol from a nonexchangeable pool, presumably the brain. The results are discussed in relation to the role of oxysterols in cholesterol homeostasis and their use as markers for pathological conditions. - Meaney, S., M. Hassan, A. Sakinis, D. Lütjohann, K. von Bergmann, A. Wennmalm, U. Diczfalusy, and I. Björkhem. Evidence that the major oxysterols in human circulation originate from distinct pools of cholesterol: a stable isotope study. J. Lipid Res. 2001. 42: 70;-78.The Journal of Lipid Research 02/2001; 42(1):70-8. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Osteoblasts arise from partially differentiated osteogenic progenitor cells (OPCs) which in turn arise from undifferentiated marrow stromal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). It has been postulated that age-related defects in osteoblast number and function may be due to quantitative and qualitative stem cell defects. To examine this possibility, we compared osteogenic stem cell number and in vitro function in marrow cells from 4-month-old and 24-month-old male BALB/c mice. Histologic studies demonstrated that these mice undergo age-related bone loss resembling that seen in humans. In primary MSC cultures grown in media supplemented with 10 nM dexamethasone, cultures from older animals yielded an average of 41% fewer OPC colonies per given number of marrow cells plated (p < 0.001). This implies that for a given number of marrow cells there are fewer stem cells with osteogenic potential in older animals than there are in younger animals. The basal proliferative rate in cultures from older animals, as measured by 3H-thymidine uptake, was more than three times that observed in cultures from young animals (p < 0.005). However, the increase in proliferative response to serum stimulation was 10-fold in the younger cultures (p <0.001) and insignificant (p <0.4) in the older cultures. Colonies in both age groups became alkaline phosphatase positive at the same rate, and virtually all colonies were positive after 12 days of culture. Cultures from both age groups produced abundant type I collagen. These studies suggest that defects in the number and proliferative potential of MSCs may underlie age-related defects in osteoblast number and function.Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 05/1996; 11(5):568-77. · 6.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have previously presented evidence that most of the 24S-hydroxycholesterol present in the circulation originates from the brain and that most of the elimination of this oxysterol occurs in the liver. Plasma 24S-hydroxycholesterol levels decline by a factor of about 5 during the first decades of life. The concentration of the enzyme cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase in the brain is, however, about constant from the first year of life, and reduced enzyme levels thus cannot explain the decreasing plasma levels during infancy. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that the plasma levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol may reflect the size of the brain relative to the capacity of the liver to eliminate the substance. It is shown here that the age-dependent changes in absolute as well as cholesterol-related plasma level of 24S-hydroxycholesterol closely follow the changes in the ratio between estimated brain weight and estimated liver volume. The size of the brain is increased only about 50% whereas the size of the liver is increased by about 6-fold after the age of 1 year. Liver volume is known to be highly correlated to body surface, and in accordance with this the absolute as well as the cholesterol-related plasma level of 24S-hydroxycholesterol was found to be highly inversely correlated to body surface in 77 healthy subjects of varying ages (r(2) = 0.74). Two chondrodystrophic dwarves with normal size of the brain but with markedly reduced body area had increased levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol when related to age but normal levels when related to body surface. It is concluded that the balance between cerebral production and hepatic metabolism is a critical determinant for plasma levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol at different ages and that endocrinological factors are less important. The results are discussed in relation to the possibility to use 24S-hydroxycholesterol in the circulation as a marker for cholesterol homeostasis in the brain.The Journal of Lipid Research 06/2000; 41(5):840-5. · 4.39 Impact Factor