Oxysterols enhance osteoblast differentiation in vitro and bone healing in vivo
ABSTRACT Oxysterols, naturally occurring cholesterol oxidation products, can induce osteoblast differentiation. Here, we investigated short-term 22(S)-hydroxycholesterol + 20(S)-hydroxycholesterol (SS) exposure on osteoblastic differentiation of marrow stromal cells. We further explored oxysterol ability to promote bone healing in vivo. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA expression, mineralization, and Runx2 DNA binding activity. To explore the effects of osteogenic oxysterols in vivo, we utilized the critical-sized rat calvarial defect model. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds alone or coated with 140 ng (low dose) or 1400 ng (high dose) oxysterol cocktail were implanted into the defects. Rats were sacrificed at 6 weeks and examined by three-dimensional (3D) microcomputed tomography (microCT). Bone volume (BV), total volume (TV), and BV/TV ratio were measured. Culture exposure to SS for 10 min significantly increased ALP activity after 4 days, while 2 h exposure significantly increased mineralization after 14 days. Four-hour SS treatment increased OCN mRNA measured after 8 days and nuclear protein binding to an OSE2 site measured after 4 days. The calvarial defects showed slight bone healing in the control group. However, scaffolds adsorbed with low or high-dose oxysterol cocktail significantly enhanced bone formation. Histologic examination confirmed bone formation in the defect sites grafted with oxysterol-adsorbed scaffolds, compared to mostly fibrous tissue in control sites. Our results suggest that brief exposure to osteogenic oxysterols triggered events leading to osteoblastic cell differentiation and function in vitro and bone formation in vivo. These results identify oxysterols as potential agents in local and systemic enhancement of bone formation.
SourceAvailable from: Amira Zarrouk[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ageing is accompanied by increasing vulnerability to major pathologies (atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, age-related macular degeneration, cataract, and osteoporosis) which can have similar underlying pathoetiologies. All of these diseases involve oxidative stress, inflammation and/or cell death processes, which are triggered by cholesterol oxide derivatives, also named oxysterols. These oxidized lipids result either from spontaneous and/or enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol on the steroid nucleus or on the side chain. The ability of oxysterols to induce severe dysfunctions in organelles (especially mitochondria) plays key roles in RedOx homeostasis, inflammatory status, lipid metabolism, and in the control of cell death induction, which may at least in part contribute to explain the potential participation of these molecules in ageing processes and in age related diseases. As no efficient treatments are currently available for most of these diseases, which are predicted to become more prevalentdue to the increasing life expectancy and average age, a better knowledge of the biological activities of the different oxysterols is of interest, and constitutes an important step towards identification of pharmacological targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies.Ageing Research Reviews 10/2014; 18. DOI:10.1016/j.arr.2014.09.006 · 7.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxysterols, oxidized derivatives of cholesterol, are biologically active molecules. Specific oxysterols have potent osteogenic properties that act on osteoprogenitor cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these osteoinductive effects on embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are unknown. This study investigated the effect of an oxysterol combination of 22(S)-hydroxycholesterol and 20(S)-hydroxycholesterol (SS) on osteogenic differentiation of ESCs and the alterations to mitochondrial activity during differentiation. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, matrix mineralization, mRNA expression of osteogenic factors, runt-related transcription factor 2, osterix, and osteocalcin, and protein levels of collagen type IA (COLIA) and osteopontin (OPN). Treatment of cells with SS increased osteoinductive activity compared to the control group. Intracellular reactive oxygen species production, intracellular ATP content, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial DNA copy number, and mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivators 1α and β, transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, were significantly increased during osteogenesis, indicating upregulation of mitochondrial activity. Oxysterol combinations also increased protein levels of mitochondrial respiratory complexes I-V. We also found that SS treatment increased hedgehog signaling target genes, Smo and Gli1 expression. Inhibition of Hh signaling by cyclopamine suppressed mitochondrial biogenesis and ESC osteogenesis. Subsequently, oxysterol-induced Wnt/β-catenin pathways were inhibited by repression of Hh signaling and mitochondrial biogenesis. Transfection of β-catenin specific siRNA decreased the protein levels of COLIA and OPN, as well as ALP activity. Collectively, these data suggest that lipid-based oxysterols enhance differentiation of ESCs toward the osteogenic lineage by regulating mitochondrial activity, canonical Hh/Gli, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 12/2014; 1853(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2014.12.011 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fibronectin and oxysterol immobilized on machined-surface dental implants for the enhancement of cell attachment and osteogenic differentiation, on peri-implant bone healing in the early healing phase using an experimental model in dogs.Journal of periodontal & implant science 10/2014; 44(5):242-50. DOI:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.5.242