Fifteen-year changes in body mass index and waist circumference in Finnish adults.
ABSTRACT Obesity is an increasing health problem. Data on long-term obesity trends are most often based on the measurement of body mass index (BMI). Abdominal obesity, assessed by waist circumference may, however, be more closely related to health risks than overall obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate 15-year changes in general and abdominal obesity among adults in Finland, and furthermore, to assess whether obesity trends differ between educational groups.
Four cross-sectional population surveys conducted at 5-year intervals between 1987 and 2002.
Altogether, 9025 men and 9950 women aged 25-64 years participated in these surveys. The weight, height, and waist circumferences of the participants were measured using a standardized protocol.
Mean waist circumference increased by 2.7 cm in men and 4.3 cm in women in 15 years. Whereas the distribution of BMI values did not change much, a remarkable shift towards higher waist circumference values was observed in 15 years. In both sexes, mean and high values of waist circumference increased in all educational groups. However, the values remained highest among the subjects with the lowest education.
These results indicate that adverse changes in body shape have taken place from the late 1980s to the early 2000s. Given that one in five Finnish adults is defined as obese based on BMI, there is an even larger group of individuals at risk of obesity-related metabolic disorders because of abdominal obesity, particularly among low-educated individuals.
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- "We show changes in WC per year of aging in both men and women. The last three of these studies (Shimokata et al., 1989c; Stevens et al., 1991; Lahti-Koski et al., 2007) examined age-related changes in the context of weight changes by studying a cohort that had only small mean changes in weight (Lahti-Koski et al., 2007), by estimating the changes in waist and weight change over time (Shimokata et al., 1989c), or by statistically adjusting for changes in weight (Stevens et al., 1991). The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study: Health in the Community included approximately 1000 people in each of two adult age cohorts, age 39 or age 59 (Ebrahimi- Mameghani et al., 2008). "
ABSTRACT: In December 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) convened a consultation to discuss cut-points for waist circumference (WC). As part of that effort, this paper examines the impact of gender and age on WC. As WC is influenced by body weight, body composition and fat distribution, their associations with gender and age were reviewed. We also noted the relationships with sex hormones, parity and menopause. We then summarized data on gender, age and WC. This presentation is not intended to be comprehensive, but to provide an overview of the available research. There are large differences in body composition in men and women, with women having more body fat. Fat distribution also differs with gender, with men having a relatively more central distribution of fat. These differences begin early in life and become more apparent in puberty due to changes in sex hormone levels. In both, men and women, waist and waist-to-hip ratio increase with age. A large portion of this increase is driven by gains in body weight, but the increases observed are larger than those that would be predicted from increases in the body mass index alone, and increases in WC are seen with aging in the absence of weight gain. The current practice of using seperate waist cut-points by gender is appropriate. Although WC increases with age, so does the risk of many chronic diseases. An evaluation of the need for age-specific waist cut-points in adults would need to consider disease risk.European journal of clinical nutrition 10/2009; 64(1):6-15. DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2009.101 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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- "The solution to the obesity problem is intractably complex, but the essence of the problem is shockingly simple: energy intake is higher than energy expenditure . Any long-term imbalance will invariably lead to changes in body weight over the years, and even small gains of a couple of Kg per year will, in due time, lead to obesity  . In populations in which obesity is increasing, age-related weight gains are no longer merely 'moderate'. "
ABSTRACT: Anorexia nervosa is diagnosed by drastic weight loss, a fear of gaining weight, a distorted body image, and, in women, three consecutive episodes of amenorrhea. It is often associated with a compulsive need for exercise, a bright outlook on life, and a high level of competitiveness. It afflicts primarily young women in higher socioeconomic strata who are highly competitive and otherwise overachievers. There are three adaptive explanations for anorexia nervosa: the reproductive suppression, the fleeing famine and the pseudo-female hypotheses. Here I present a novel hypothesis, the age-related obesity hypothesis. It posits that the otherwise normal tendency by women to seek a youthful appearance can become maladaptive and lead to anorexia nervosa in environments in which thinness becomes the primary indicator of youth, such as in modern industrialized societies. This hypothesis explains the aforementioned associated features of anorexia nervosa, and its increasing prevalence in western societies. The hypothesis generates several testable predictions: (1) Prevalence of anorexia nervosa across societies should be related to the degree to which thinness is an indicator of youth in a population. (2) Conversely, perceptions of the weight-age relationship should differ among populations depending on the prevalence of anorexia nervosa. (3) Anorectic individuals, or those with the propensity to develop the disease, should have a biased perception of the weight-age relationship. (4) Experimental manipulation of individuals' perception of the weight-age relationship should affect weight concerns, particularly among anorectic or at-risk individuals. Should the hypothesis be supported it might be used to screen at-risk individuals. Furthermore, it would call for more integrative public health programs that take a comprehensive approach encompassing both obesity and anorexia.Medical Hypotheses 09/2008; 71(6):933-40. DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2008.07.013 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Muscle performance, body composition and bone mass at the lumbar spine and proximal femur with DXA, structural traits at the tibia and radius with pQCT, and biomarkers of bone metabolism were assessed at baseline and after a three-month weight reduction in obese premenopausal women. Associations between changes in weight loss and bone traits were analyzed by linear regression analysis. The mean (SD) weight loss was 4.3 (4.5) kg ranging from 14.8 kg loss to 2.1 kg gain. Muscle performance was well maintained, while no signs of bone loss or structural deterioration were observed. Changes in bone resorption were significantly associated with weight change (for CTX, r=-0.34; p=0.043, and for TRACP5b, r=-0.35; p=0.032). There were borderline (p<0.1) negative correlations between changes in biomarkers and bone traits. Reduced fat mass was associated with slight mean increase in cortical density of the radial shaft. Also total body BMC increased slightly. Changes in both fat and lean mass were associated with a change in BMC. Our findings suggest that mild-to-moderate weight reduction modulated bone turnover slightly, but they do not support the common notion that such a weight reduction would compromise bone rigidity, possibly partly due to well maintained muscle performance.Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions 9(2):72-80. · 2.40 Impact Factor