Fifteen-year changes in body mass index and waist circumference in Finnish adults.
ABSTRACT Obesity is an increasing health problem. Data on long-term obesity trends are most often based on the measurement of body mass index (BMI). Abdominal obesity, assessed by waist circumference may, however, be more closely related to health risks than overall obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate 15-year changes in general and abdominal obesity among adults in Finland, and furthermore, to assess whether obesity trends differ between educational groups.
Four cross-sectional population surveys conducted at 5-year intervals between 1987 and 2002.
Altogether, 9025 men and 9950 women aged 25-64 years participated in these surveys. The weight, height, and waist circumferences of the participants were measured using a standardized protocol.
Mean waist circumference increased by 2.7 cm in men and 4.3 cm in women in 15 years. Whereas the distribution of BMI values did not change much, a remarkable shift towards higher waist circumference values was observed in 15 years. In both sexes, mean and high values of waist circumference increased in all educational groups. However, the values remained highest among the subjects with the lowest education.
These results indicate that adverse changes in body shape have taken place from the late 1980s to the early 2000s. Given that one in five Finnish adults is defined as obese based on BMI, there is an even larger group of individuals at risk of obesity-related metabolic disorders because of abdominal obesity, particularly among low-educated individuals.
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ABSTRACT: Objective To determine the relationship between persistence or change in leisure-time physical activity habits and waist gain among young adults.Methods Population-based cohort study among 3383 Finnish twin individuals (1578 men) from five birth cohorts (1975-1979), who answered questionnaires at mean ages of 24.4 y (SD 0.9) and 33.9 y (SD 1.2), with reported self-measured waist circumference. Persistence or change in leisure-time physical activity habits was defined based on thirds of activity metabolic equivalent h/day during follow-up (mean 9.5 y; SD 0.7).ResultsDecreased activity was linked to greater waist gain compared to increased activity (3.6 cm, P < 0.001 for men; 3.1 cm, P < 0.001 for women). Among same-sex activity discordant twin pairs, twins who decreased activity gained an average 2.8 cm (95%CI 0.4 to 5.1, P = 0.009) more waist than their co-twins who increased activity (n = 85 pairs); among MZ twin pairs (n = 43), the difference was 4.2 cm (95%CI 1.2 to 7.2, P = 0.008).Conclusions Among young adults, an increase in leisure-time physical activity or staying active during a decade of follow-up was associated with less waist gain, but any decrease in activity level, regardless baseline activity, led to waist gain that was similar to that associated with being persistently inactive.Obesity 09/2014; 22(9). DOI:10.1002/oby.20788 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The scope of this study was to evaluate the association between waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) of Brazilian women of childbearing age studied in the most recent National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), in 2006. This study is an excerpt of the NDHS, which is a home-based cross-sectional study. The nutritional status of women was assessed by WC and BMI, considering excess weight to be BMI = 25 Kg/m2 and WC risk to be = 80 cm. To evaluate the statistical significance, Poisson Regression was applied to identify factors associated with WC risk in women with or without excess weight, presenting the p-value corresponding to the Wald test for heterogeneity or linear trend. Of the 14,101 women studied, 45.8% were overweight and 55.5% at WC risk. Regarding the association between BMI and WC, it was found that 23.5% of women who were not overweight showed WC risk. After a stratified analysis by BMI, the prevalence of WC risk among women without excess weight was greatest in the Northeast, 26.0%, and the Southeast, 24.5%, while the South region presented the lowest prevalence at 18.5%. It follows that the anthropometric WC and BMI measures should be used concomitantly since the use of only one of these measures may overlook individuals at risk for various diseases.Ciencia & saude coletiva 01/2014; 19(1):75-82. DOI:10.1590/1413-81232014191.2000
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ABSTRACT: What is already known about this subject • Recent obesity trends across the world in adults are mixed, varying from showing signs of levelling off to a continuously increasing prevalence.• Secular trends in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference may vary by sex and age.• Relying exclusively on BMI data may lead to underestimate the obesity epidemic.What this study adds • Adverse trends in obesity indicators have continued in Finland in the 2000s.• In older men, BMI remained quite stable and in older women BMI has decreased since 1997.• Steep upward trends in abdominal obesity (waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio, WHtR) have taken place in both men and women and in all age groups, especially during the past 10 years.• The impact of BMI adjustment on trends in abdominal obesity varied by age such that increases in BMI-adjusted waist circumference and WHtR were more prominent in older age groups.SummarySigns that obesity trends will level off at the turn of the 21st century have been reported. In these studies, however, the definition of obesity has been based only on body mass index (BMI). We investigated obesity trends among Finnish adults over recent years by using BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as indicators for obesity. Data were derived from the national FINRISK surveys, which are cross-sectional population surveys conducted at 5-year intervals between 1992 and 2007. Altogether, 20 551 randomly selected men and women aged 25–64 years participated in health examinations, where weight, height, and waist and hip circumferences were measured by trained nurses. Mean BMI increased in younger men and women (aged 25–44 years) between 1992 and 2007, whereas in older men, BMI remained quite stable and in older women BMI has decreased since 1997. Nevertheless, mean waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio increased in both men and women over the 15-year period. The upward trends took place in all age groups, especially during the past 10 years. Adverse trends in obesity indicators have continued in Finland in the 2000s. In particular, concerns are related to steep upward trends in abdominal obesity.02/2012; 2(1‐2). DOI:10.1111/j.1758-8111.2012.00035.x