In mucopolysaccharidoses, upper airway obstruction has multiple causative factors and progressive respiratory disease may severely affect morbidity and mortality. In a cross-sectional study over 2 years we evaluated upper airway obstructive disease through overnight polysomnography, upper airway computed tomography and nasal endoscopy in 5 children and 6 adults with mucopolysaccharidoses of various types. Measurements of apnoea and apnoea-hypopnoea index, arousal index, and sleep efficiency were obtained through polysomnography. Retropalatal and retroglossal spaces were calculated through computed tomography, and the degree of adenoid hypertrophy was assessed through endoscopy. Apnoea index and apnoea-hypopnoea index were significantly higher in children than in adults with mucopolysaccharidoses (p = 0.03 and p = 0.03, respectively). Compared to healthy controls, retropalatal and retroglossal spaces were significantly smaller in children (p = 0.03 and p = 0.004, respectively) or adults with mucopolysaccharidoses (p = 0.004 and p = 0.004, respectively). All subjects had adenoid hypertrophy causing first-degree (36%) or second-degree (64%) obstruction at endoscopy. Overnight polysomnography, upper airway computed tomography and nasal endoscopy are useful tools for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in mucopolysaccharidoses, and identifying the site and severity of airway obstruction.
"OSA evaluation should begin with history and physical examination, but the degree of pre and post-operative obstruction should be studied with polysomnography and rhino-oro-laryngoscopy 23
25. For these reasons, we performed a pre- and post-operative sleep study that demonstrated improvement of AHI ranging from 7 to 15 after surgery, with oxygen saturation ranging from 81% to 87% compared to preoperative results (AHI ranging from 18 to 31, and oxygen saturation ranging from 74% to 85%). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are lysosomal storage disorders caused by deficiency of enzymes involved in the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). These disorders are associated with the accumulation of GAGs in tissues with organomegaly, mental retardation and short stature. Otologic and upper respiratory tract pathologies are among the earliest clinical manifestations. We analyzed 20 patients (13 male and 7 female, median age at the beginning of the observation 6 years) with MPS (35% type I, 30% type II, 20% type III, 5% type IV, 10% type VI), focusing on their otorhinolaryngologic problems and the impact of surgery on quality of life. We found ear, nose and throat manifestations in all types of MPS; in particular, recurrent otitis media was present in 30% of cases, hearing loss in 75% (mixed in 43.33%, conductive in 43.33%, sensorineural in 13.33%), adenotonsillar hypertrophy in 75%, frequent infections of the upper airway in 75% and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in 45% of cases. Fifty percent of patients required surgical therapy (adenotonsillectomy, adenoidectomy with insertion of middle ear ventilation tubes, tonsillectomy, tracheotomy and exeresis of vocal cord polyps). In our experience the ENT surgery reduced the frequency and severity of ear infections and relieved symptoms related to upper airway obstruction, thereby improving the quality of life in affected patients.
Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica: organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale 08/2013; 33(4):267-272. · 1.64 Impact Factor
"The radiologist should know that multiplanar reconstruction of a MDCT scan, usually performed in these patients for the evaluation of the atlanto-axial instability, may be an important tool to assess the status of the whole airway passage. Anaesthesiologists could use this information to improve their preoperative airway management [26–28]. Sometimes it may be necessary to perform a tracheostomy in order to ensure airway safety [24, 29]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) represent a heterogeneous group of inheritable lysosomal storage diseases in which the accumulation of undegraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) leads to progressive damage of affected tissues. The typical symptoms include organomegaly, dysostosis multiplex, mental retardation and developmental delay. Definitive diagnosis is usually possible through enzymatic assays of the defective enzyme in cultured fibroblasts or leukocytes.
Radiological and neuroradiological findings are reported. The most important neuroradiological features include abnormal signal intensity in the white matter, dilatation of periventricular spaces, widening of cortical sulci, brain atrophy, enlargement of extraventricular spaces and spinal cord compression. With reference to the skeletal system, most important radiological findings include multiplex dysostosis, which is represented by several bone malformations found in the skull, hands, legs, arms and column. The abnormal storage of GAGs leads to liver and spleen enlargement; it also damages cartilage layers and synovial recesses in the joints.
The aim of this pictorial essay is to describe the imaging findings of MPS, represented by skeletal and neurological features; skeletal X-ray and MR allow an assessment of the severity of disease, to plan medical and surgical therapy and to evaluate response to treatment.
• To describe the imaging findings common to different types of MPS. • To describe multiplex dysostosis encountered in the axial and appendicular skeleton. • To evaluate neuroradiological features of MPS, including brain abnormal signal intensity and atrophy. • To evaluate important otorhinolaryngological problems, such as otitis media and airways obstruction.
Insights into Imaging 05/2013; 4(4). DOI:10.1007/s13244-013-0246-8
"Because most LSD are systemic, virtually all organs may be involved to a greater or lesser degree. Several LSD have airways disease as part of the clinical picture, yet at presentation or as late-onset features
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycogenosis type II (Pompe disease) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase. The classic form is characterized by severe cardiac involvement, generalized hypotonia and exitus early in life. Presenting symptoms and signs of the disease may be neglected or underestimated, thus delaying the diagnosis. Respiratory manifestations mainly occur because of respiratory muscle weakness. However, additional mechanisms can favor the development of pulmonary complications that result in fatal respiratory failure. We herein describe a case of an infant with glycogenosis type II presenting with hepatomegaly and hypertransaminasemia, who rapidly developed fatal lung disease.
Italian Journal of Pediatrics 02/2013; 39(1):9. DOI:10.1186/1824-7288-39-9 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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