Loe IM, Feldman HM. Academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
Journal of Pediatric Psychology (Impact Factor: 2.91). 08/2007; 32(6):643-54. DOI: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsl054
Source: PubMed


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor grades, poor reading and math standardized test scores, and increased grade retention. ADHD is also associated with increased use of school-based services, increased rates of detention and expulsion, and ultimately with relatively low rates of high school graduation and postsecondary education. Children in community samples who show symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity with or without formal diagnoses of ADHD also show poor academic and educational outcomes. Pharmacologic treatment and behavior management are associated with reduction of the core symptoms of ADHD and increased academic productivity, but not with improved standardized test scores or ultimate educational attainment. Future research must use conceptually based outcome measures in prospective, longitudinal, and community-based studies to determine which pharmacologic, behavioral, and educational interventions can improve academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD.

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    • "(Hypothesis 2aec): High novelty seeking (Hypothesis 2a) (Cloninger et al., 1991, 1994; von Stumm & Ackerman, 2013; von Stumm et al., 2011), high reward dependence (Hypothesis 2b) (Cloninger, 1987, 1994a; Cloninger et al., 1994, 1993) and high persistence (Hypothesis 2c) (Barrick et al., 2001; Bidjerano & Dai, 2007; De Raad & Schouwenburg, 1996; Poropat, 2009; Steel, 2007; Trautwein et al., 2006) are associated with higher adulthood educational attainment. (Hypothesis 3): Explosive (NHr; i.e., high novelty seeking and harm avoidance, low reward dependence) and methodical (nHr; i.e., low novelty seeking and reward dependence, high harm avoidance) temperament profiles are associated with lower adulthood educational attainment (Agrawal et al., 2008; Anckars€ ater et al., 2006; Cloninger et al., 1994; Diamantopoulou et al., 2007; DuPaul et al., 2004; Guti errez et al., 2008; Josefsson, Cloninger, et al., 2011; Josefsson et al., 2013; Josefsson, Merjonen, et al., 2011; Loe & Feldman, 2007; Svrakic et al., 2002; Vile Junod et al., 2006; Wong & Cloninger, 2010). (Hypothesis 4): Reliable (nhR; i.e., low novelty seeking and harm avoidance, high reward dependence) and passionate temperament profiles (NhR; i.e., high novelty seeking and reward dependence, low harm avoidance) are associated with higher adulthood educational attainment (Cloninger et al., 1994; Svrakic et al., 2002; Wong & Cloninger, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to examine the associations of temperament traits and temperament profiles (i.e., the combinations of multiple traits) with adulthood educational attainment. The participants were 837 women and 592 men from a population-based cohort study. Temperament was assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) based on the Psychobiological Model of Temperament and Character. Analyses were conducted with linear regression analyses and with analysis of variance (ANOVA). In both genders, high harm avoidance was associated with lower educational attainment. High persistence among women and high reward dependence among men were related to higher educational attainment. Novelty seeking was not associated with educational attainment in either gender. Among men explosive and methodical temperament profiles were associated with lower educational attainment while reliable and passionate temperament profiles were associated with higher educational attainment. Temperament may play an important role in lifelong learning and academic performance over different developmental transitions.
    Learning and Instruction 08/2015; 40(December 2015):39-53. DOI:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2015.07.002 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    • "ADHD is one of the commonest mental health disorders in childhood with a prevalence of 5.3% (Polanczyk, de Lima, Horta, Biederman, & Rohde, 2007). The core symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000, 2013) affect academic functioning (Biederman et al., 1996; Loe & Feldman, 2007; Massetti et al., 2008; Rapport, Scanlan, & Denney, 1999; Sexton, Gelhorn, Bell, & Classi, 2012; Tannock, 1998). Comorbidities are common in children diagnosed with ADHD (Yoshimasu et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim was to determine literacy and numeracy outcomes, among children with and without ADHD by gestational age and gender. De-identified linked population data from the Western Australian Monitoring of Drugs of Dependence System and Western Australian Literacy and Numeracy Assessment databases, and the Midwives Notification System used information on 6,819 children with ADHD compared with 14,451 non-ADHD children. A total of 23% of boys and 28% of girls with ADHD had numeracy scores below the benchmark in School Year 3, compared with 11% of children without ADHD. These differences were also evident for reading, writing, and spelling through primary school. Children with ADHD and reduced gestational age were at a greater risk of not meeting numeracy and reading benchmarks, compared with children born at term. Children with ADHD are disadvantaged from an early age in key areas of learning, and this risk increased with reduction in gestational age at birth. © 2015 SAGE Publications.
    Journal of Attention Disorders 08/2015; DOI:10.1177/1087054715596575 · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    • "• Findings are consistent with previous studies [2] [3] [4] [5], participants exhibiting ADHD symptoms (children included in the clinical interval), especially symptoms of inattention, compared to typically developing children (children included in the normal interval), had lower academic functioning. • Moreover, there is a strong association between academic achievement and secondary problems associated with ADHD symptoms such as behavioral (e.g., externalizing or internalizing difficulties) problems. "
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    ABSTRACT: Children exhibiting ADHD symptoms have been shown to be at high risk of academic failure, grade repetition and poor academic achievement. Few research studies have addressed the problem of assessing the incidence of ADHD symptoms in Transylvanian children. In this study, besides the prevalence of ADHD symptoms: inattention and hyperactivity, emotional and behavioral problems were assessed among elementary school students without formal diagnosis of ADHD. Teachers completed the Teacher Report Form (TRF) for 68 children with ages between 7-10 years. Based on teachers’ ratings, results show that children exhibiting symptoms of ADHD, have also academic impairments, poor school outcomes. Psychoeducational implications of the findings and suggestions for further research are discussed.
    SGEM International Multidisciplinary Conferences on SOCIAL SCIENCES AND ARTS, Albena, Bulgaria; 08/2015
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