Article

Loe IM, Feldman HM. Academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
Journal of Pediatric Psychology (Impact Factor: 2.91). 08/2007; 32(6):643-54. DOI: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsl054
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor grades, poor reading and math standardized test scores, and increased grade retention. ADHD is also associated with increased use of school-based services, increased rates of detention and expulsion, and ultimately with relatively low rates of high school graduation and postsecondary education. Children in community samples who show symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity with or without formal diagnoses of ADHD also show poor academic and educational outcomes. Pharmacologic treatment and behavior management are associated with reduction of the core symptoms of ADHD and increased academic productivity, but not with improved standardized test scores or ultimate educational attainment. Future research must use conceptually based outcome measures in prospective, longitudinal, and community-based studies to determine which pharmacologic, behavioral, and educational interventions can improve academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD.

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    • "• Findings are consistent with previous studies [2] [3] [4] [5], participants exhibiting ADHD symptoms (children included in the clinical interval), especially symptoms of inattention, compared to typically developing children (children included in the normal interval), had lower academic functioning. • Moreover, there is a strong association between academic achievement and secondary problems associated with ADHD symptoms such as behavioral (e.g., externalizing or internalizing difficulties) problems. "
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    ABSTRACT: Children exhibiting ADHD symptoms have been shown to be at high risk of academic failure, grade repetition and poor academic achievement. Few research studies have addressed the problem of assessing the incidence of ADHD symptoms in Transylvanian children. In this study, besides the prevalence of ADHD symptoms: inattention and hyperactivity, emotional and behavioral problems were assessed among elementary school students without formal diagnosis of ADHD. Teachers completed the Teacher Report Form (TRF) for 68 children with ages between 7-10 years. Based on teachers’ ratings, results show that children exhibiting symptoms of ADHD, have also academic impairments, poor school outcomes. Psychoeducational implications of the findings and suggestions for further research are discussed.
    SGEM International Multidisciplinary Conferences on SOCIAL SCIENCES AND ARTS, Albena, Bulgaria; 08/2015
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    • "Furthermore in regard to stimulant medication, some children experience serious side effects (Graham and Coghill, 2008) and there is growing concern among parents about the unknown long term effects (Berger et al., 2008). Finally, it has been shown that current multimodal approach does not lead to improvements in academic performance (Raggi and Chronis, 2006; Van der Oord et al., 2008), a key area of functioning in every day life which is often disturbed in children with ADHD (Loe and Feldman, 2007). These limitations have led to a growing demand for alternative non-pharmacological interventions for children with ADHD. "
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this randomized controlled trial was to replicate and extend previous studies of Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT) in children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While a large proportion of children with ADHD suffer from academic difficulties, only few previous efficacy studies have taken into account long term academic outcome measures. So far, results regarding academic outcome measures have been inconsistent. Hundred and two children with ADHD between the age of 8 and 12 years (both medicated and medication naïve) participated in current randomized controlled trial. Children were randomly assigned to CWMT or a new active combined working memory-and executive function compensatory training called 'Paying Attention in Class.' Primary outcome measures were neurocognitive functioning and academic performance. Secondary outcome measures contained ratings of behavior in class, behavior problems, and quality of life. Assessment took place before, directly after and 6 months after treatment. Results showed only one replicated treatment effect on visual spatial working memory in favor of CWMT. Effects of time were found for broad neurocognitive measures, supported by parent and teacher ratings. However, no treatment or time effects were found for the measures of academic performance, behavior in class or quality of life. We suggest that methodological and non-specific treatment factors should be taken into account when interpreting current findings. Future trials with well-blinded measures and a third 'no treatment' control group are needed before cognitive training can be supported as an evidence-based treatment of ADHD. Future research should put more effort into investigating why, how and for whom cognitive training is effective as this would also potentially lead to improved intervention-and study designs.
    Frontiers in Psychology 07/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01081 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "It is well established that ADHD is associated with poor academic achievement, with up to 56% receiving special education and at least 30% repeating a grade (Barkley, 2010). However, much less is known regarding why problems are more pronounced for some children with the disorder than for others (for reviews, see Daley & Birchwood, 2009; Loe & Feldman, 2007; Polderman, Boomsma, Bartels, Verhulst, & Huizink, 2010). It is therefore of interest to examine to what extent early neuropsychological deficits are predictive of later academic problems. "
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    ABSTRACT: High levels of ADHD symptoms are related to severe negative outcomes, which underscore the importance of identifying early markers of these behavior problems. The main aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether neuropsychological deficits in preschool are related to later ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, over and above the influence of early ADHD symptom levels. The present study is unique because it includes a broader range of predictors compared to previous studies and the participants are followed over time for as long as 13 years (i.e., ages 5-18 years). Preschool data included measures of executive functioning and reaction time variability as well as emotional reactivity and emotion regulation of both positive and negative emotions. When controlling for early ADHD symptom levels, working memory, reaction time variability, and regulation of happiness/exuberance were significantly related to inattention whereas regulation of happiness/exuberance and anger reactivity were significantly related to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Furthermore, working memory and reaction time variability in preschool were significantly related to academic achievement in late adolescence beyond the influence of early ADHD symptoms. These findings could suggest that it is possible to screen for early neuropsychological deficits and thereby identify children who are at risk of negative outcomes. Furthermore, our results suggest that interventions need to look beyond executive functioning deficits in ADHD and also target the role of emotional functioning and reaction time variability. The importance of including both the positive and negative aspects of emotional functioning and distinguishing between emotion regulation and emotional reactivity was also demonstrated.
    Child Neuropsychology 07/2015; DOI:10.1080/09297049.2015.1063595 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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