Academic and Educational Outcomes of Children With ADHD

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
Journal of Pediatric Psychology (Impact Factor: 2.91). 08/2007; 32(6):643-54. DOI: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsl054
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor grades, poor reading and math standardized test scores, and increased grade retention. ADHD is also associated with increased use of school-based services, increased rates of detention and expulsion, and ultimately with relatively low rates of high school graduation and postsecondary education. Children in community samples who show symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity with or without formal diagnoses of ADHD also show poor academic and educational outcomes. Pharmacologic treatment and behavior management are associated with reduction of the core symptoms of ADHD and increased academic productivity, but not with improved standardized test scores or ultimate educational attainment. Future research must use conceptually based outcome measures in prospective, longitudinal, and community-based studies to determine which pharmacologic, behavioral, and educational interventions can improve academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although a growing body of research provides support for the detrimental effects of stress during childhood on future adult health, less is known about how stress disrupts normal developmental processes. This pathway may be particularly relevant for urban adolescents who are exposed to additional contextual stressors. This study will longitudinally explore how psychological stress from multiple domains influences urban adolescents’ career readiness. A total of 200 youth (aged 14–21 years) completed surveys assessing their school, family, neighborhood, and health stress. Path analysis using a parallel process model found that school and neighborhood stress at 6 months were significantly associated with decreased career readiness at 15 months. Health stress at baseline was related to an increased report of career readiness at 15 months, which was moderated by parental closeness. These findings suggest that experiences of stress for urban youth negatively affect their planning for the future, particularly in the absence of supportive parental relationships.
    Journal of Community Psychology 04/2015; 43(3). DOI:10.1002/jcop.21681 · 0.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction Stimulant medication is a well-researched treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is among the most effective treatments in psychiatry. Parents often want to know more about the long-term risks and benefits of medication. Our objective was to review the seminal papers on long-term outcomes of stimulant treatment for ADHD for the purpose of providing clinicians with the background they need to interpret these findings for patients. Methods We reviewed key articles on long-term outcome of symptoms, comorbidity, substance use, executive functioning, academics, side effects, neurobiology, functioning, and quality of life. Results Stimulants are very effective medications in the short term when used optimally. Long-term randomized, placebo-controlled studies are not feasible. Long-term naturalistic studies are limited by absence of controls. Discussion When administered properly with careful titration, follow-up, and dose adjustment, stimulants are a safe and effective treatment for ADHD with minimal long-term risk and possible long-term benefit.
    01/2015; 2(1):1. DOI:10.1007/s40474-015-0039-5
  • Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie 01/2015; 29(1):5-18. DOI:10.1024/1010-0652/a000141 · 0.95 Impact Factor