Identification of peripherin as a Akt substrate in neurons
ABSTRACT Activation of Akt-mediated signaling pathways is crucial for survival and regeneration of injured neurons. In this study, we attempted to identify novel Akt substrates by using an antibody that recognized a consensus motif phosphorylated by Akt. PC12 cells that overexpressed constitutively active Akt were used. Using two-dimensional PAGE, we identified protein spots that exhibited increased immunostaining of the antibody. Mass spectrometry revealed several major spots as the neuronal intermediate filament protein, peripherin. Using several peripherin fragments, the phosphorylation site was determined as Ser(66) in its head domain in vitro. Furthermore, a co-immunoprecipitation experiment revealed that Akt interacted with the head domain of peripherin in HEK 293T cells. An antibody against phosphorylated peripherin was raised, and induction of phosphorylated peripherin was observed not only in Akt-activated cultured cells but also in nerve-injured hypoglossal motor neurons. These results suggest that peripherin is a novel substrate for Akt in vivo and that its phosphorylation may play a role in motor nerve regeneration.
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ABSTRACT: Akt is one of the central kinases that perform a pivotal function in mediating survival signaling in a wide range of neuronal cell types in response to growth factor stimulation. The recent findings of a number of targets for Akt suggest that it prohibits neuronal death by both impinging on the cytoplasmic cell death machinery and by regulating nuclear proteins. The presence of active Akt in the nuclei of mammalian cells is no longer debatable, and this has been corroborated by the finding of multiple targets in the nucleus of PC12 cells. However, it is also clear that the nuclear Akt signaling exists independent of the cytosolic Akt signaling, thereby showing a distinctive feature of nuclear Akt signaling as opposed to its cytosolic counterpart. The principal objective of this review is to summarize our current state of knowledge regarding nuclear Akt signaling in neuronal survival, and to introduce current theories regarding the roles of nuclear Akt in neuron.09/2014; 23(3):200-6. DOI:10.5607/en.2014.23.3.200This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: Prolonged exposure to stress elicits profound effects on homeostasis that may lead to cryptogenic disorders such as chronic fatigue syndrome. To investigate the pathophysiology associated with the syndrome, we used a rat continuous stress (CS) model where the pituitary represents one of the most affected organs. Here we found that mRNA for VGF (non-acronymic), a member of the granin family, was induced specifically in the intermediate lobe (IL). This was matched by a concomitant increase at the peptide/protein level assessed by C-terminal antibody. Furthermore, the upregulation of VGF was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in a subset of melanotrophs. VGF expression was altered in the IL of rats receivingthe dopamine D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine or the antagonist sulpiride. In vitro, dopamine dose-dependently decreased the mRNA levels in cultured melanotrophs. These findings suggest that VGF expression under CS is negatively regulated by dopaminergic neurons projecting from the hypothalamus.Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 03/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2013.03.012 · 4.24 Impact Factor