Rotavirus vaccines: recent developments and future considerations.

Instituto de Genética Humana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Carrera 7, 40-62, Bogotá, Colombia.
Nature Reviews Microbiology (Impact Factor: 23.32). 08/2007; 5(7):529-39. DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro1692
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Two new vaccines have recently been shown to be safe and effective in protecting young children against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Although both vaccines are now marketed worldwide, it is likely that improvements to these vaccines and/or the development of future generations of rotavirus vaccines will be desirable. This Review addresses recent advances in our knowledge of rotavirus, the host immune response to rotavirus infection and the efficacy and safety of the new vaccines that will be helpful for improving the existing rotavirus vaccines, or developing new rotavirus vaccines in the future.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rotaviruses (RV) are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in infants and children worldwide and are associated with high mortality predominately in low-income settings. The virus is classified into G and P serotypes and further into P genotypes based on differences in the surface-exposed proteins VP7 and VP4, respectively. Infection results in a variable level of protection from subsequent reinfection and disease. This protection is predominantly homotypic in some settings, whereas broader heterotypic protection is reported in other cohorts. Two antigenically distinct oral RV vaccines are licensed and are being rolled out widely, including in resource-poor setting, with funding provided by the GAVI alliance. First is a monovalent vaccine derived from a live-attenuated human RV strain, whereas the second is a pentavalent bovine-human reassortment vaccine. Both vaccines are highly efficacious in high-income settings, but greatly reduced levels of protection are reported in low-income countries. Here, the current challenges facing mucosal immunologists and vaccinologists aiming to define immunological correlates and to understand the variable levels of protection conferred by these vaccines in humans is considered. Such understanding is critical to maximize the public health impact of the current vaccines and also to the development of the next generation of RV vaccines, which are needed.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication 3 December 2014; doi:10.1038/mi.2014.114; published online 3 December 2014.
    Mucosal Immunology 12/2014; · 7.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent advances of rotavirus (RV) basic and applied research are reviewed. They consist of: determination of the RV particle structure and functions of structural proteins, classification into genotypes based on whole genome analyses, description of the RV genome and gene protein assignments, description of the viral replication cycle and of functions of RV-encoded non-structural proteins as well as cellular proteins and cellular organelles involved, the present status of RV genetics and reverse genetics, molecular determinants of pathogenesis and pathophysiology, the RV-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, innate immune responses and correlates of protection, laboratory diagnosis, differential diagnosis and present status of treatment, the molecular epidemiology and mechanisms of evolution of RVs, the development and universal application of RV vaccines as well as issues arising from present universal RV vaccination programmes and work on alternative vaccines. The review concludes by presenting problems requiring further exploration and perspectives of future basic and translational research.
    Virus Research 07/2014; · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Frequencies of circulating T cells producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2, and percentages of T cells proliferating after stimulation with rotavirus (RV), tetanus toxoid, and influenza were evaluated in PBMC derived from healthy adults and children. In addition, the potential anergic state of RV-specific T cells was analyzed by stimulation of PBMC with RV antigen in the presence of three anergy inhibitors (rIL-2, rIL-12, or DGKα-i). The quality and magnitude of RV-T cell responses were significantly lower than those of tetanus toxoid and influenza antigens. RV-CD4 T cell response was enriched in monofunctional IFN-γ(+) cells, while influenza-CD4 and tetanus toxoid-CD4 T cell responses were enriched in multifunctional T cells. Moreover, rIL-2 - unlike rIL-12 or DGKα-i - increased the frequencies of RV-CD4 TNF-α(+), CD4 IFN-γ(+), and CD8 IFN-γ(+) cells. Thus, circulating RV-T cells seem to have a relatively poor functional profile that may be partially reversed in vitro by the addition of rIL-2.
    Virology 09/2014; 468-470C:340-350. · 3.28 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 5, 2014

Manuel Franco