Structural requirements for antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides
ABSTRACT Recently, attention has been focused on pharmacological treatments that increase HDL cholesterol to prevent coronary artery disease. Despite three decades of extensive research of human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein component of HDL, the molecular basis for its antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory functions remain elusive. Another protein component of HDL, apoA-II, has structural features similar to those of apoA-I but does not possess atheroprotective properties. To understand the molecular basis for the effectiveness of apoA-I, we used model synthetic peptides. We designed analogs of the class A amphipathic helical motif in apoA-I that is responsible for solubilizing phospholipids. None of these analogs has sequence homology to apoA-I, but all are similar in their lipid-associating structural motifs. Although all of these peptide analogs interact with phospholipids to form peptide:lipid complexes, the biological properties of these analogs are different. Physical-chemical and NMR studies of these peptides have enabled the delineation of structural requirements for atheroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties in these peptides. It has been shown that peptides that interact strongly with lipid acyl chains do not have antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. In contrast, peptides that associate close to the lipid head group (and hence do not interact strongly with the lipid acyl chain) are antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory. Understanding the structure and function of apoA-I and HDL through studies of the amphipathic helix motif may lead to peptide-based therapies for inhibiting atherosclerosis and other related inflammatory lipid disorders.
Article: Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent publications reveal the mechanism of action of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides to be the remarkable binding affinity that oxidized lipids have for these peptides compared with apoA-I. There was no difference in the binding affinity of oxidized lipids or in peptide efficacy in reducing inflammation and atherosclerosis in rabbits injected with peptides synthesized from all D- or all L-amino acids. The apoA-I mimetic peptide 4F increased the formation of pre-β high-density lipoprotein, increased cholesterol efflux, and reduced lipoprotein oxidation in vitro; it increased antioxidants and vascular repair in type 1 diabetic rats; it improved vasodilation, oxidative stress, myocardial inflammation, and angiogenic potential in a mouse model of scleroderma; it reduced renal inflammation in low-density lipoprotein receptor-null mice fed a Western diet; it reduced arthritis in a rat model; it reduced adiposity, increased adiponectin levels, and improved insulin sensitivity in obese mice; and it improved high-density lipoprotein inflammatory properties in humans with coronary heart disease.Current Atherosclerosis Reports 01/2008; 11(1). DOI:10.1007/s11883-009-0008-8 · 3.06 Impact Factor