Involvement of lysosomal storage-induced p38 MAP kinase activation in the overproduction of nitric oxide by microglia in cathepsin D-deficient mice.
ABSTRACT Nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite, which are produced by activated microglia, are responsible for accelerated neurodegeneration in cathepsin D-deficient (CD-/-) mice. To elucidate the mechanisms by which microglia are initially activated in CD-/- mice, we analyzed the possible relationship between lysosomal storage and microglial activation. In CD-/- mice, the microglial NO-generating activity that was closely associated with the induction of inducible NO synthase and the cationic amino acid transporter-2 (CAT-2) coincided well with the lysosomal storage of subunit c of mitochondrial F0F1ATPase and the formation of ceroid/lipofuscin. Furthermore, activated microglia, which are often accumulating subunit c and ceroid/lipofuscin, showed proliferation activity and an activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. In the primary cultured microglia, pepstatin A was found to enhance the generation of NO and superoxide anion radicals. In these pepstatin A-treated microglia, both an increased generation of the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an activation of p38 MAP kinase were observed. These results suggest that the ceroid/lipofuscin which form in microglia activate the p38 MAP kinase cascade through the increased intracellular generation of ROS in CD-/- mice. The activated p38 MAP kinase cascade then promotes the expression of iNOS and CAT-2, thereby inducing the overproduction of NO.
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a paradigmatic example of neurodegenerative disorder with a critical role of oxidative stress in its etiopathogenesis. Genetic susceptibility factors of PD, such as mutations in Parkin, PTEN-induced kinase 1, and DJ-1 as well as the exposure to pesticides and heavy metals, both contribute to altered redox balance and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Dysregulation of autophagy, a lysosomal-driven process of self degradation of cellular organelles and protein aggregates, is also implicated in PD and PD-related mutations, and environmental toxins deregulate autophagy. However, experimental evidence suggests a complex and ambiguous role of autophagy in PD since either impaired or abnormally upregulated autophagic flux has been shown to cause neuronal loss. Finally, it is generally believed that oxidative stress is a strong proautophagic stimulus. However, some evidence coming from neurobiology as well as from other fields indicate an inhibitory role of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species on the autophagic machinery. This review examines the scientific evidence supporting different concepts on how autophagy is dysregulated in PD and attempts to reconcile apparently contradictory views on the role of oxidative stress in autophagy regulation. The complex relationship between autophagy and oxidative stress is also considered in the context of the ongoing search for a novel PD therapy.Molecular Neurobiology 08/2012; · 5.74 Impact Factor