Antioxidant activity of Erica arborea.
ABSTRACT The antioxidant properties of the methanol extract of leaves and flowers of Erica arborea and the ethyl acetate, butanol and water soluble fractions were investigated. The ethyl acetate extract was found to be the richest for phenolic and flavonoid content which showed the highest antioxidant activity.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aqueous extractions from two species of Erica consumed as infusions in several countries to heal ailments were investigated for their phenolic and flavonoid con-tents, along with antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity using total antioxidant activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2-2'-azino-bis(3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals, respectively. Antioxidant properties and total phenolic content dif-fered significantly among these plants. Aqueous extracts of leaves possessed, on average, the highest antioxidant capacity and phenolic content (34.09 10.81 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g dry weight and 30.59 10.19 mg gallic acid equivalent/ g dry weight, respectively) of all three plant parts. A significant correlation (r 2 = 0.952) between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content was found, indicating that phenolic compounds are the major contributors to the antioxidant properties of these plants. Upon application of hierarchical cluster analysis to the results obtained, leaves with flowers were grouped in one cluster, whereas branches remained in another cluster, showing little interference from the collec-tion site or species factors.Journal of Food Quality 09/2012; 35:307-314. · 0.76 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aim The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity, and acute toxicity of Moroccan Erica arborea leaves. Methods Antioxidant capacity was assessed by diphenyle-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), phosphomolybdate (PPM) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) tests and anti-inflammatory capacity was evaluated by hind paw oedema model using carrageenan-induced inflammation in rat. The acute toxicity was evaluated using mice. Results Acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of E. arborea showed no sign of toxicity at dose of 5 g/kg B.W. Our extracts have important antioxidant properties. The efficient concentration of the ethanolic extract (10.22 μg/ml) required for decreasing initial DPPH concentration by 50% was comparable to that of standard solution butyl-hydroxy-toluene (BHT) (8.87 μg/ml). The administration of ethanolic extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg B.W. was able to prevent plantar oedema and exhibited a significant inhibition against carrageenan-induced inflammation when compared to the control group (NaCl 0.9%) but comparable to those of diclofenac (reference drug). Conclusions Our results show that the leaves of E. arborea may contain some bioactive compounds which are responsible for the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities observed here. Our finding may indicate the possibility of using the extracts of this plant to prevent the antioxidant and inflammatory processes.Pathologie Biologie 12/2013; 61(6):254–258. · 1.07 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Two new phenylpropanoid glucosides, 1,2-erythro-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-2-(b-d-glucopyrano-syloxy)propan-1,3-diol (1) and 7,8-threo-2',8-epoxysyringylglycerol-7-O-a-d-glucopyranoside (ericarbo-side; 2) have been isolated together with four known compounds 2',7-epoxysyringylglycerol-8-O-b-d-glucopyranoside (ficuscarpanoside B; 3), benzylrutinoside (hydrangeifolin; 4), phenethylrutinoside (5), and caffeic acid from the BuOH soluble part of the MeOH extract of the leaves and flowers of E. arborea L. Final purification of the compounds was achieved on a reversed-phase HPLC. Their structures have been elucidated by extensive 1D-and 2D-NMR, and mass spectroscopic techniques. Introduction. – The genus Erica (Ericaceae), comprising ca. 100 species, is distributed in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa . Erica arborea L., commonly known as tree heath, briar root, or funda, is native to a number of countries in Africa, Temperate Asia, and Europe and also naturalized in the British Isles, Australia, and New Zealand  . Erica arborea is a shrub or small evergreen tree with a height of one to seven meters, and produces numerous small white flowers . In Turkey, this species is widely distributed throughout West and North Anatolia and the Mediterra-nean basin, and its leaves and flowers have been used as diuretic, urinary antiseptic, diet tea, and laxative . A phytochemical study on E. arborea growing in Turkey was reported by our group, leading to the isolation of (À)-epicatechin and quercitrin . We further reported the isolation and identification of two flavone glycosides tricetin 4'-O-a-l-rhamnopyranoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-a-l-rhamnopyranoside from the leaves of Erica arborea, purchased from a local market in Canakkale (western Anatolia) . A study on the volatile constituents of the flowers was reported by another group . From other Erica species, monoterpenes and condensed tannins have been previously reported  , as well as flavonoids  . In continuationHelvetica Chimica Acta 01/2010; 93. · 1.39 Impact Factor
Antioxidant activity of Erica arborea
Mehmet Aya,⁎, Fatemeh Bahadoria,b, Mehmet Öztürkc,d, Ufuk Kolakc, Gülaçti Topçue
aÇanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, Çanakkale 17020, Turkey
bTabriz University of Medicinal Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, Tabriz, Iran
cIstanbul University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Analytical and General Chemistry, Istanbul 34116, Turkey
dMugla University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, Mugla 48121, Turkey
eIstanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey
Received 13 October 2006; accepted 1 March 2007
Available online 24 May 2007
The antioxidant properties of the methanol extract of leaves and flowers of Erica arborea and the ethyl acetate, butanol and
water soluble fractions were investigated. The ethyl acetate extract was found to be the richest for phenolic and flavonoid content
which showed the highest antioxidant activity.
© 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Erica arborea; Antioxidant activity; Antiradical activity; Metal chelating activity
Erica arborea L. (Ericaceae), leaves and flowers collected from Kazdağı-Çanakkale, Turkey (Karaköy district), in
April 2002, was identified by Dr. Ismet UYSAL (Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University). A voucher specimen was
Fitoterapia 78 (2007) 571–573
⁎Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 286 218 00 18x1859; fax: +90 286 218 05 33.
E-mail addresses: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com (M. Ay).
Phenolic and flavonoid contents of the E. arborea extracts and fraction
Material Phenolic content (μg PEs/mg extract)a
Flavonoid content (μg QEs/mg extract)b
Values expressed are means±S.D. of three parallel measurements. (Pb0.05).
aPEs, pyrocatechol equivalents.
bQEs, quercetin equivalents.
0367-326X/$ - see front matter © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
deposited (COMU-370) in the Dardanel Herbarium of Biology Department of Faculty of Science and Arts, Çanakkale
Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey.
2. Use in traditional medicine
In Turkey, the leaves and flowers have been used as diuretic, urinary antiseptic and against constipation .
3. Previously isolated classes of constituents
Flavonoids and phenolics .
4. New isolated constituents
(-)-Epicatechin and quercitrin [3,4].
5. Tested material
Methanol extract (27%), ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water (13.05 g) soluble fractions, (-)-epicatechin and quercitrin
from the ethyl acetate extract.
6. Studied activities
Total phenolic content using the Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent (FCR)  and total flavonoid content by Al(NO3)3
method . Results were expressed as micrograms of pyrocatechol (PEs) and quercetin equivalents (QEs) per gram of
Antioxidant activity by β-carotene bleaching method , free radical scavenging activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-
hydrazil (DPPH) assay , superoxide anion radical scavenging activity based on nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)
reduction in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)/phenazine methosulphate (PMS) system [9,10] and
ferrous metal chelating activity based on Ferrozine–Fe+2complex [11,12]. The data on all antioxidant activity tests are
the average of triplicate analyses. Statistical analysis of variance was performed by ANOVA procedures. Significant
differences between means were determined by Student's t test, P values b0.05 were regarded as significant. IC50
values were calculated from the concentration-effect linear regression curve.
The free radical scavenging capacity in DPPH system (IC50, μg/mL), the inhibition ratio of linoleic acid oxidation in β-carotene/linoleic acid assay,
the inhibition of superoxide anion radical scavenging activity in NADH-PMS-NBTsystem, and metal chelating activity in Ferrozine–Fe2+assays of
Inhibition (%) in β-carotene/
linoleic acid system (25 μg/mL)
Inhibition (%) in NADH-PMS-NBT
system (25 μg/mL)
Inhibition (%) Ferrozine–Fe2+
system (100 μg/mL)
aValues expressed are means±S.D. of three parallel measurements. (Pb0.05).
bReference compound. NT: not tested.
572 M. Ay et al. / Fitoterapia 78 (2007) 571–573
Reported in Tables 1 and 2.
Ethyl acetate extract was found the richest in phenolic and flavonoid contents (Table 1). Fraction 9 of the ethyl
acetate extract was found to be the richest fraction in total phenolic and flavonoid content and afforded (-)-epicatechin
and quercitrin (0.014 % and 0.013%, respectively).
The antioxidant activity of the extracts as well as the two isolated flavonoids was investigated by the β-carotene-
linoleic acid system. The potential of all extracts was fairly high and the activity of the ethyl acetate extract was almost
equal to those of both isolated flavonoids and the quercetin (Table 2). In DPPH assay, the ethyl acetate extract showed
the highest activity. (-)-Epicatechin exhibited activity higher than that of other tested samples including standards,
except quercetin (Table 2). In superoxide anion radical scavenging activity at 25 μg/mL concentration, the ethyl acetate
extract and its fraction (fraction 9) showed high activity, even higher than L-ascorbic (Table 2). Metal chelating effect
of the extracts, isolated flavonoids and standards were also investigated, and quercitrin showed the highest metal
chelating effect (Table 2).
Mehmet Ay & Fatemeh Bahadori thank Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Scientific Research Project
Commission for supporting the projects (COMU BAP 2001-b/13 and BAP 2005/06). The Istanbul University, Re-
search Fund with the project number BYP-703/17.06.2005 is also acknowledged for the partial support of this work.
 Baytop T. Therapy with medicinal plants of Turkey. Istanbul: The Nobel Publication; 1999. p. 208.
 Harborne JB, Williams CA. Bot J Linn Soc 1973;66:37.
 Marby TJ, Markham KR, Thomas MB. The systematic identification of flavonoids. New York: Springer-Verlag Inc.; 1970.
 Harborne JB, Mabry TJ. The flavonoids advances in research. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1982. p. 126.
 Slinkard K, Singleton VL. Am J Enol Vitic 1977;28:49.
 Turkoglu A, Duru ME, Mercan N, Kivrak I, Gezer K. Food Chem 2007;101:267.
 Miller HM. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1971;45:91.
 Blois MS. Nature 1958;26:1199.
 Liu F, Ooi VEC, Chang ST. Life Sci 1997;60:763.
 Gülçin I, Şat IG, Beydemir S, Elmastaş M, Küfrevioğlu OI. Food Chem 2004;87:393.
 Kolak U, Ozturk M, Ozgokçe F, Ulubelen A. Phytochemistry 2006;67:2170.
 Dinis TCP, Madeira VMC, Almeida LM. Arch Biochem Biophys 1994;315:161.
573 M. Ay et al. / Fitoterapia 78 (2007) 571–573