Antioxidant activity of Erica arborea
Mehmet Aya,⁎, Fatemeh Bahadoria,b, Mehmet Öztürkc,d, Ufuk Kolakc, Gülaçti Topçue
aÇanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, Çanakkale 17020, Turkey
bTabriz University of Medicinal Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, Tabriz, Iran
cIstanbul University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Analytical and General Chemistry, Istanbul 34116, Turkey
dMugla University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, Mugla 48121, Turkey
eIstanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey
Received 13 October 2006; accepted 1 March 2007
Available online 24 May 2007
The antioxidant properties of the methanol extract of leaves and flowers of Erica arborea and the ethyl acetate, butanol and
water soluble fractions were investigated. The ethyl acetate extract was found to be the richest for phenolic and flavonoid content
which showed the highest antioxidant activity.
© 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Erica arborea; Antioxidant activity; Antiradical activity; Metal chelating activity
Erica arborea L. (Ericaceae), leaves and flowers collected from Kazdağı-Çanakkale, Turkey (Karaköy district), in
April 2002, was identified by Dr. Ismet UYSAL (Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University). A voucher specimen was
Fitoterapia 78 (2007) 571–573
⁎Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 286 218 00 18x1859; fax: +90 286 218 05 33.
E-mail addresses: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org (M. Ay).
Phenolic and flavonoid contents of the E. arborea extracts and fraction
Material Phenolic content (μg PEs/mg extract)a
Flavonoid content (μg QEs/mg extract)b
Values expressed are means±S.D. of three parallel measurements. (Pb0.05).
aPEs, pyrocatechol equivalents.
bQEs, quercetin equivalents.
0367-326X/$ - see front matter © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
deposited (COMU-370) in the Dardanel Herbarium of Biology Department of Faculty of Science and Arts, Çanakkale
Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey.
2. Use in traditional medicine
In Turkey, the leaves and flowers have been used as diuretic, urinary antiseptic and against constipation .
3. Previously isolated classes of constituents
Flavonoids and phenolics .
4. New isolated constituents
(-)-Epicatechin and quercitrin [3,4].
5. Tested material
Methanol extract (27%), ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water (13.05 g) soluble fractions, (-)-epicatechin and quercitrin
from the ethyl acetate extract.
6. Studied activities
Total phenolic content using the Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent (FCR)  and total flavonoid content by Al(NO3)3
method . Results were expressed as micrograms of pyrocatechol (PEs) and quercetin equivalents (QEs) per gram of
Antioxidant activity by β-carotene bleaching method , free radical scavenging activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-
hydrazil (DPPH) assay , superoxide anion radical scavenging activity based on nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)
reduction in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)/phenazine methosulphate (PMS) system [9,10] and
ferrous metal chelating activity based on Ferrozine–Fe+2complex [11,12]. The data on all antioxidant activity tests are
the average of triplicate analyses. Statistical analysis of variance was performed by ANOVA procedures. Significant
differences between means were determined by Student's t test, P values b0.05 were regarded as significant. IC50
values were calculated from the concentration-effect linear regression curve.
The free radical scavenging capacity in DPPH system (IC50, μg/mL), the inhibition ratio of linoleic acid oxidation in β-carotene/linoleic acid assay,
the inhibition of superoxide anion radical scavenging activity in NADH-PMS-NBTsystem, and metal chelating activity in Ferrozine–Fe2+assays of
Inhibition (%) in β-carotene/
linoleic acid system (25 μg/mL)
Inhibition (%) in NADH-PMS-NBT
system (25 μg/mL)
Inhibition (%) Ferrozine–Fe2+
system (100 μg/mL)
aValues expressed are means±S.D. of three parallel measurements. (Pb0.05).
bReference compound. NT: not tested.
572M. Ay et al. / Fitoterapia 78 (2007) 571–573
7. Results Download full-text
Reported in Tables 1 and 2.
Ethyl acetate extract was found the richest in phenolic and flavonoid contents (Table 1). Fraction 9 of the ethyl
acetate extract was found to be the richest fraction in total phenolic and flavonoid content and afforded (-)-epicatechin
and quercitrin (0.014 % and 0.013%, respectively).
The antioxidant activity of the extracts as well as the two isolated flavonoids was investigated by the β-carotene-
linoleic acid system. The potential of all extracts was fairly high and the activity of the ethyl acetate extract was almost
equal to those of both isolated flavonoids and the quercetin (Table 2). In DPPH assay, the ethyl acetate extract showed
the highest activity. (-)-Epicatechin exhibited activity higher than that of other tested samples including standards,
except quercetin (Table 2). In superoxide anion radical scavenging activity at 25 μg/mL concentration, the ethyl acetate
extract and its fraction (fraction 9) showed high activity, even higher than L-ascorbic (Table 2). Metal chelating effect
of the extracts, isolated flavonoids and standards were also investigated, and quercitrin showed the highest metal
chelating effect (Table 2).
Mehmet Ay & Fatemeh Bahadori thank Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Scientific Research Project
Commission for supporting the projects (COMU BAP 2001-b/13 and BAP 2005/06). The Istanbul University, Re-
search Fund with the project number BYP-703/17.06.2005 is also acknowledged for the partial support of this work.
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